Medicine and Health Care

15805 MINDFULNESS MEDITATION AS AN ADJUNCTIVE ADDICTION THERAPY. Presents a research design/proposal for a study investigating the use of mindfulness meditation practice in addiction reduction for a sample of 50 outpatients experiencing chronic and/or recurring drug addiction. Proposal includes problem statement, conceptual framework, statement of hypothesis and research objectives, detail of methodology (sampling procedure, measurement instruments, data collection, data analysis) and plan for the presentation of results. Written 2002. 8 pages, 29 footnotes, 24 bibliographic sources.

15804 NURSING ETHICS AND CAUSING DEATH IN A NON-DYING PATIENT. This paper provides an analysis of an amici curiae brief filed by a group of nurses in the case of Christian Busalacchi, a non-dying patient in a vegetative state. The paper summarizes the nurses’ arguments and the precedents they cited to support these arguments; analyzes the effectiveness of the nurses’ arguments and the conflict of laws or rights imbued in the briefs; and then takes the position of a member of the court and renders a decision and an explanation of the rationale for same. The case concerns Ms. Busalacchi’s Guardian’s (her father’s) petition to the court to have her feeding tube removed and the nurses’ opposition to any nursing involvement in “causing the death” of this patient by denying food and water and hence facilitating death by starvation and dehydration. Written 2002. 10 pages. Internal citations to legal cases.

15802 HUMAN STEM CELL RESEARCH CONTROVERSY. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the ethical problems presented by human stem cell research. Following a brief background summary on the medical/scientific components of the controversy and an equally brief overview of the current U.S. legal framework on stem cell research, the analysis focuses on the ethics of stem cell research. The ethical arguments for and against stem cell research are considered and the principal ethical dilemmas in the controversy are identified and discussed. The concluding sections present a proposed resolution to the dilemmas and a personal perspective on the problem. It will be argued that stem cell research using particular categories of human embryos and fetal material is ethically acceptable when carried out within a carefully designed ethical/legal framework and that further, there is a moral imperative to conduct such research so that society receives benefits from the related medical breakthroughs. Written 2002. 11 pages, 16 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources.

15793 SAFETY. A profile and analysis of safety considerations in four fields with significant public interactions: law enforcement (municipal police), transportation, banking, and nursing, with a special focus on nursing. The analysis addresses both public safety issues and the personal safety concerns of individuals working in each of these fields. A concluding section looks at safety cases in nursing and summarizes the four main attributes of safety as being prevention, foresight, compassion, and control. Written 2002. 12 pages, 29 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.

15785 THE RECREATIONAL DRUG ECSTASY: THE PROBLEM AND SOME ATTEMPTED SOLUTIONS. Provides an overview and analysis of the recreational drug Ecstasy (aka “E”, XTC). Outlines the chemical basis of the drug, describes its main effects and health risks of drug abuse; discusses it use and abuse during the 1970’s, and its more recent popularity as a “club drug.” Emphasizes the health risks of the drug. Briefly discusses supply and distribution patterns and current law enforcement efforts to discourage use. Considers various individual, school- and family-based psychological (psychotherapy, cognitive behavior therapy, etc.) and drug education programs to address the problem. Written 2002. 9 pages, 32 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources.

15779 ANALYSIS OF AN ARTICLE ON BULIMIA. Analyzes an article by Sandra R. Yarock that first appeared in a 1993 issue of The American Journal of Psychoanalysis. The article fills a gap in the literature by focusing on four psychological approaches to the study and treatment of chronic bulimia. Written 2002. 5 pages, 13 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.

15774 ANALYSIS OF AN ARTICLE ON CANCER PATIENTS. Critical discussion of the 1993 journal article “Patient-Related Barriers to Management of Cancer Pain.” The article is concerned with a study on the factors that inhibit the use of pain-control medications among certain cancer patients. Written 2002. 6 pages, 0 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.

15765 CASE ANALYSIS: AN AIDS PATIENTS’ DEMAND FOR FUTILE, LIFE-EXTENDING TREATMENT. This case involves a conflict between the principles of respect for autonomy and justice and the principle of social beneficence. An HMO nurse, charged with caring for a number of AIDS patients, disagrees with one patients’ wish to receive life-sustaining and extending treatment. The analysis states the ethical problem, identifies the principal decision-makers, outlines alternative courses of action and their ethical consequences, ranks the alternatives, and considers ways to avoid similar problems in the future. Written 2002. 5 pages, 1 footnote, 1 bibliographic source.

15763 THE MEDICAL MODE OF MENTAL ILLNESS: ETHICAL ISSUES FOR THE SOCIAL WORKER. Drawing on a review of the current psychiatric, psychological and social work literature, this paper provides a synthesis of the argument that the medical model as now construed is often an inappropriate and erroneous model for the treatment of emotional issues. While noting the likelihood of a biological bias or predisposition for some of the currently defined major mental illnesses, it is argued that the existing medical model of mental illness all too often functions as little more than an exercise in biological reductionism. Focusing especially on the “soft diagnoses,” the analysis advances arguments concerning the questionable reliability and validity of DSM diagnostic categories as well as arguments concerning the extent to which the medical model serves to disempower clients (by removing their sense of control and focusing their attention on uncontrollable biological forces as the sole “cause” of their “illness”), and how clients would be better served through an alternative model. Following from this analysis, and drawing upon the ethic of informed consent as it is encompassed within the National Association of Social Worker’s (NASW) (1999) Code of Ethics, it is argued that it is morally incumbent upon social workers to inform clients of both the questionable validity of their psychiatric diagnosis and that the medical model is only a theoretical orientation which has not been scientifically proven. Written 2002. 22 pages, 109 footnotes, 38 bibliographic sources.

15755 PROFILE OF A NURSING THEORIST: IMOGENE KING. Using Fawcett’s (2000) metaparadigm as a framework for analysis, this paper provides an overview and analysis of the central concepts and theories developed by a major nursing theorist – Imogene M. King. The first section provides a summary overview of King’s theory and describes its place within the metaparadigm of nursing. The next section considers the application of King’s theory in research and practice. A concluding section examines common criticisms of King’s theory and provides a general assessment of her theory within the framework of the metaparadigm of nursing. Written 2002. 11 pages, 42 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.

15754 CORONARY HEART DISEASE (CHD): RISK FACTORS, INDICATORS AND PATHOGENESIS. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the known and emerging risk factors and indicators for coronary heart disease as well as an overview of the pathogenesis of this major killer. The investigation begins with a definition and overview of established risk factors and indicators of CHD, including unmodifiable factors such as genetic predisposition and modifiable or semi-modifiable factors such as hypertension. Also included is a special emphasis on the growing consensus that atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease and the consequent emergence of inflammatory indicators (e.g., C-reactive protein) as important risk factors and/or predictors of CHD. Written 2002. 12 pages 59 footnotes, 25 bibliographic sources.

15752 CHRONIC DIARRHEA. This paper provides a brief overview and analysis of chronic diarrhea, examining its definition and major clinical features; estimating its prevalence and impact; explicating its major possible underlying causes; and discussing the major strategies and techniques that physicians use to diagnosis and evaluate the condition. The focus of this report is on chronic diarrhea as it affects adults in developed countries, particularly in North America. Written 2002. 7 pages, 15 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.

15712 BIO-TERRORISM. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the threat and reality of biological terrorism and/or biological warfare in 21st Century, post-September 11th America (2001. The first part of the paper conducts an overview of the potential sources of a biological attack, looking at both state actors and non-state actors, and examining the barriers that these potential attackers would have to overcome in order to carry off a large-scale attack using biological agents. The second part provides an overview of what experts have identified as the five “critical biological agents” that might be used as biological weapons: plague, botulism, tularemia, anthrax and smallpox. Written 2002. 13 pages, 63 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources.

15711 HIGH-RISE BUILDING EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAMS: FOCUSING ON THE MEDICAL ISSUES. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the medical issues that high-rise building security teams and other high-rise emergency responder teams face in emergency situations (e.g., fire, earthquake, bomb attack, etc.). Specifically, the analysis examines ways in which building-based emergency responders can mitigate the building occupants’ exposure to emergency-related health risks; prevent, when possible, occupant injury and illness; and, through rapid and effective response and effective interface with outside/field (non-building – i.e., police, fire, paramedic, health and medical personnel) emergency responders – particularly medical – reduce loss of life and improve health outcomes among other victims in a mass casualty emergency situation. Written 2002. 12 pages, 35 footnotes, 24 bibliographic sources.

15681 AND THE BAND PLAYED ON: THE AIDS EPIDEMIC AND A COMMUNITY IN DISASTER. Using Randy Shilts’ (1987) And The Band Played On as the primary source, this paper examines the early years of the AIDS epidemic as a disaster affecting the gay community within the broader context of collective stress situations, as depicted in Barton’s (1969) Communities in Disaster. The impact and responses of the AIDS disaster is compared with three other disasters in Barton’s (1969) book: the 1952 Arkansas tornado, the Irish Famine, and the bombing of Hiroshima. Written 2002. 10 pages, 21 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.

15676 MEDICAL ETHICS: THE USE OF HUMAN SUBJECTS. This paper provides a brief synthesis and summary of the central concepts found in a chapter on the ethics of medical research and human experimentation. Discusses three major professional codes of ethics dealing with the subject, examines the moral issues involved in non-therapeutic experiments with case examples, considers whether or not consent must always be obtained, describes the random clinical trial process, and looks at issues surrounding research on children. Written 2002. 5 pages, 1 footnote, 1 bibliographic source.

15667 HIGH-RISE BUILDING RESPONSE TEAM’S EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN: MEDICAL & FIRST AID. This paper provides an overview and outline of a medical and first aid emergency plan for a high-rise building. This emergency plan is designed to be carried out by building-based first responder teams, specifically teams trained for onsite medical emergency response (the team members are building security employees). The medical issues addressed in the plan are based on a previous high-rise building emergency/disaster scenario risk assessment and on OSHA’s Guidelines For First Aid Training Programs. Written 2002. 12 pages, 24 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.

15663 ANOREXIA NERVOSA AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE. This paper presents an overview and analysis of the connection between substance abuse and one particular eating disorder – anorexia nervosa. Following an overview of the clinical syndrome of anorexia nervosa, the investigation reviews the literature examining the link between anorexia nervosa and substance abuse. Considers how anorexia differs from bulimia in its relation to substance abuse, differences in substance abuse prevalence by anorexia sub-type, whether substance abuse and anorexia arise simultaneously or whether one disorder precedes the other, and theories providing possible explanations for the link between these disorders. Written 2001. 11 pages, 44 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources.

15662 A NURSE PRACTITIONER DESIGNED AND DIRECTED WORKSITE WEIGHT MANAGEMENT PROGRAM. This paper describes the theoretical framework and design of a weight management (weight loss) program to be designed and implemented by a staff Nurse Practitioner at the target facility’s (a large long-term nursing care facility with 1,200 employees) in-house employees clinic. Provides an overview of current theories and techniques in weight management; discusses current definitions of obesity; considers the importance of designing the program to suit the individual needs of a multi-cultural employee population; and provides a rationale for the use of the Nurse Practitioner (versus physician or paraprofessional) as the program director. Written 2001. 13 pages, 70 footnotes, 25 bibliographic sources.

15660 REVIEW OF FATAL FREEDOM BY THOMAS SZASZ. A favorable review and analysis of controversial psychiatrist Thomas Szasz’s book on the ethics and politics of suicide. Summarizes Szasz’s central thesis and major arguments favoring the treatment of suicide as a personal decision and individual choice to be made free from State or medical interference and opposing the sanctioning of physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia. Finds the book to be thought provoking, meticulously researched, and well written. Szasz’s arguments are compelling and convincing, although his disdain of the medical profession and the psychiatric discipline in particular can be distracting. Written 2002. 7 pages, 16 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.

15659 NUTRITIONAL NEEDS IN PATIENTS WITH PARKINSON’S DISEASE. This paper provides an overview and analysis of nutritional needs and dietary concerns of patients with Parkinson’s disease as well as an overview of potentially beneficial dietary therapies for PD patients. Concerns addressed include weight loss, L-dopa absorption problems and the need for protein intake modulation, and the association between specific dietary factors (e.g., antioxidants, B-vitamins, coffee, alcohol), and PD. Written 2001. 11 pages, 33 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.

15655 ETHNICITY AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS PSYCHOLOGICAL INTERVENTION: CULTURAL AND PERSONALITY FACTORS IN DIFFERENCES. This report which reviews the current psychological literature on the personality and cultural factors influencing attitudes and receptivity towards psychological/psychiatric intervention/treatment among various ethnic minority groups found in the U.S (including various Latino groups, Asian groups, Africa-Americans, and Native Americans). The analysis begins with an overview of the current thinking on culture and personality and the possible implications for this inquiry. Following this, the current psychological literature on ethnic/cultural differences in attitudes toward psychiatry/psychology and manifestations of mental health problems is reviewed and analyzed. Written 2001. 15 pages, 45 footnotes, 28 bibliographic sources.

15649 DEPRIVATION OF LIBERTY AND THE PSYCHIATRIC PATIENT: INVOLUNTARY CIVIL COMMITMENT AND TREATMENT. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the deprivation of individual liberty encompassed in the process and act of involuntary civil commitment and related involuntary treatment. The focus of this paper is confined to involuntary civil commitments arising within the community (versus involuntary treatment of prisoners or involuntary commitment of sexual predators following their completion of criminal sentence). Describes the rationale for commitment, reviews the history of commitment law in the U.S., and discusses the possible solutions to the problems posed by involuntary civil commitment. Written 2001. 11 pages, 43 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.

15623 HEALTHY AGING: THE ROLE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND NUTRITION. This paper provides a brief overview and analysis of the critical role of nutrition and physical activity in the health and well-being of the elderly. The analysis examines the problem of malnutrition in the elderly and the relationship between health and nutrition in this population considers specific nutrient needs and concerns of the elderly; and presents dietary recommendations. The specific benefits of physical activity (in terms of disease prevention, health improvements, disability prevention, and improved mental status) are discussed and guidelines for elderly exercise programs presented. Written 2002. 9 pages, 28 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.

15622 INTERNET BUSINESS PLAN: MARKETING HEALTH INSURANCE ONLINE. This paper presents an Internet business plan for a fictional (a composite profile was formed based on a survey of the literature on insurance industry trends and composition) established brick-and-mortar health and life insurance broker. This presentation begins with a brief summary of the company and its mission (prior to the implementation of the Internet strategy). This is followed by an industry’/market analysis and description of the marketplace. The Internet business plan includes a company-specific products/services analysis; identification of the target market audience; a profile of the competition; plans for brand name development; articulation of the marketing, sales and promotion strategies; an outline of the customer service support plan; marketing budget and business profitability projections. During the course of the business plan, the presentation articulates a new mission statement for the Internet plan and specifically how the Internet plan dovetails with the existing company business model and mission. Written 2002. 15 pages, 41 footnotes, 25 bibliographic sources.

15614 HIGH-RISE BUILDING EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAMS: FOCUSING ON THE MEDICAL ISSUES. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the medical issues that high-rise building security teams and other high-rise emergency responder teams face in emergency situations (e.g., fire, earthquake, bomb attack, etc.). Specifically, the analysis examines ways in which building-based emergency responders can mitigate the building occupants’ exposure to emergency-related health risks; prevent, when possible, occupant injury and illness; and, through rapid and effective response and effective interface with outside/field (non-building – i.e., police, fire, paramedic, health and medical personnel) emergency responders – particularly medical responders – reduce loss of life and improve health outcomes among other victims in a mass casualty emergency situation. Written 2002. 12 pages, 35 footnotes, 24 bibliographic sources.

15612 NURSING ETHICS CASE: FORCE-FEEDING A DEPRESSED, TERMINALLY ILL PATIENT. This case concerns a depressed 47-year-old man who has recently been diagnosed with leukemia and is currently undergoing ECT treatments in a psychiatric ward. The severely depressed man is refusing to eat or drink. Nursing staff has responded with a plan to force-feed the patient through an NG tube. The ethical problems involve a conflict between patient autonomy, the medical staff’s obligation to take action which benefits the patient, and their duty to avoiding harming the patient. The analysis states the ethical problem, identifies the principle decision-makers, outlines alternative courses pf action and their ethical consequences, ranks the alternatives, and considers ways to avoid similar problems in the future. Written 2002. 6 pages, 1 footnote, 1 bibliographic source.

15611 PREDICTIVE GENETIC TESTING IS INHERENTLY UNETHICAL WITHIN THE EXISTING U.S. HEALTHCARE SYSTEM. This paper analyzes the ethically complex and controversial issue of predictive genetic testing. It will be argued that given the current conditions in the U.S. healthcare system, the use of predictive genetic testing is inherently unethical and should be prohibited because it may harm patients and result in injustices. It is argued that the benefits of genetic testing are grossly overstated (e.g., there are often no treatments available for genetic diseases) and that the risks, especially those related to breach of patient confidentiality, loss of insurance, and discrimination in employment, are grossly understated. It is maintained that barring the implementation of a system of universal healthcare, predictive genetic testing will remain an ethically unviable proposition. Written 2002. 12 pages, 26 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources.

15547 IN THE LAND OF GOD AND MAN (SILVANA PATERNOSTRO). Review of book on the threat of the spreads of AIDS among Latin American women, which the author argues is related to the extramarital affairs of “macho” husbands. Criticizes the author’s use of “emotionalized” language, but otherwise finds the book useful because it provokes debate on an important health risk issue. 6 pages; 18 footnotes; 1 bibliographic source.

15514 MISLEADING STATISTICS ON THE HEALTH RISKS OF SECOND-HAND SMOKING. Although there are clearly health risks associated with smoking, the paper argues that the statistical data used to support policies to ban public smoking are often “manipulated” (i.e., the studies contain methodological flaws, misrepresentations or exaggerations). It is concluded that more impartial studies are needed in order to better guide policy in the future. Written 2002. 5 pages, 9 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.

15481. INSANITY: LEGAL VERSUS PSYCHIATRIC VIEWPOINTS. This paper provides an overview and analysis of legal versus psychiatric/medical views of insanity with a particular focus on the insanity defense and the legal approach to mental illness in the criminal courts. The analysis begins with a historical background on the development of the insanity defense. Following this, we consider the use and components of the insanity defense in contemporary American jurisprudence, looking at the acceptance of the insanity defense as a valid legal strategy in various jurisdictions, the alternatives to the insanity defense, and the psychiatric and legal issues surrounding insanity defenses and the disposition of acquitted defendants. 12 pages, 48 footnotes, 21 bibliographic references.

15476. FEELING GOOD BY EATING RIGHT: A STUDY OF HEALTH FOOD MARKETING. This study of health food marketing examines consumer attitudes, beliefs and preferences towards health and nutrition in general and health food and related supplements in particular as part of an effort to formulate a more effective marketing program for a specific health food store. Following a review of relevant literature, the results of a questionnaire administered to twenty-five (25) randomly selected customers from the target health food store are presented and analyzed. Drawing on the results of the survey, the outline of a new store marketing campaign stressing product quality and the knowledge of staff about health food products is presented. 25 pages, 37 footnotes, 22 bibliographic references.

15469. COMBATING DECLINING PROFESSIONALISM IN HEALTHCARE. Focusing on provider-patient relations (primarily physician-patient) and physicians’ ethical responsibilities to patients, this paper examines declining professionalism and professional ethics in contemporary medicine. The essay is organized into three main parts. Part one defines professionalism and its components within the context of medicine. Part two examines the decline in medical professional ethics in recent years, considering some of the possible causes for the decline. Part three considers some of the steps which might be taken to address the problem of declining professionalism. 12 pages, 28 footnotes, 19 bibliographic references.

15439. DORTHEA OREM’S SELF-CARE MODEL OF NURSING. This paper provides a focused review on the application of a nursing model in nursing research, education, administration and practice. The nursing model selected for analysis is Dorothea Orem’s (1995) Self-Care framework (sometimes referred to as Orem’s self-care deficit theory in the nursing literature). Following an overview of the social utility of Orem’s conceptual framework according to the analytical framework established by Fawcett (2000), this analysis reviews the nursing literature on the application of Orem’s conceptual framework in nursing research, education, and practice. 32 footnotes, 18 bibliographic references.

15428. COMPUTERIZED MEDICATION PRESCRIBING: A HIGH TECH SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM OF MEDICATION ERRORS. This paper provides an overview and analysis of one important method for preventing and reducing medication errors: electronic drug prescribing. It is argued that electronic drug prescribing has the potential to dramatically reduce medication errors and their related adverse drug events by directly addressing errors and/or problems which occur during the ordering process by ensuring the legibility of prescriptions, correcting for misspelling or inadvertent ‘wrong choice’ drugs, and alerting the prescribing physician to proper dosing, potential drug interactions and patient contraindications, and alternative “better” choice medications. It is further argued that electronic drug prescribing will serve to reduce medication errors and related ADEs by improving physician-nurse medication-related communication and contributing to improvements in nursing efficiency which will in turn lead to better patient care and patient safety. 12 pages, 34 footnotes, 20 bibliographic references.

15247. CONTROVERSIES IN ALCOHOLISM TREATMENT: ABSTINENCE VERSUS CONTROLLED DRINKING. Based on a review of the current literature on alcoholism treatment, this paper presents a comparative analysis of the two opposing models of alcohol treatment: 1) the traditional model, which views alcoholism as a disease and abstinence as the only acceptable treatment goal; and 2) newer approaches (e.g., moderation management, controlled drinking, rational recovery), which view alcoholism as a behavioral problem and sees controlled drinking or “moderate” drinking as an appropriate treatment goal. The analysis compares the philosophy of each model, discusses the differences in the two treatment approaches, considers empirical support for the efficacy of each model, and discusses the suitability of each model for different patient populations. 12 pages, 47 footnotes, 31 bibliographic references.

15232. PHYSICIAN ETHICS IN AN ERA OF MANAGED CARE. This paper analyzes a crucial issue in contemporary physician ethics: physicians’ need to reconcile their primary duty to their patients’ welfare with their obligations and interests arising from a health care system dominated by the managed care model. Following an overview of the issue, the analysis explores specific examples of physicians’ confrontation of this ethical conflict. The impact of financial incentives, gag orders, and MCO-dictated clinical guidelines are considered, as are the implications of physicians’ willingness and/or tendency to try and “game the system.” The concluding section makes suggestions on how to modify the system to reduce physicians’ ethical conflict and encourage physician adherence to professional ethics. 11 pages, 45 footnotes, 16 bibliographic references.

15168. THE EMERGENCE OF AIDS IN THE EARLY 1980S, AND ITS IMPACT ON THE GAY/LESBIAN COMMUNITY. At first, shock and denial, as well as economic and political concerns, caused the community to not react appropriately to the crisis. However, by the end of the decade, the gay and lesbian community was actively involved in AIDS education and caring for victims. 6 pages, 17 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.

15126. BIOETHICS AND BIOTECHNOLOGY. Explores the ethical and social problems involved in the exploitation of flora and fauna for medicine, foodstuffs and other products. Argues that biotechnology is motivated to protect rain forests and wildlife, and may help preserve indigenous peoples in passing. 6 pages, 10 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.

15070. NATIVE AMERICANS AND ALCOHOLISM. Following a brief overview of the general population characteristics and health status of Native Americans, the analysis examines the historical and cultural roots of alcoholism in Native Americans, profiles current alcohol consumption patterns and their relation to morbidity and mortality among this group, and considers efforts to address this major health concern. 12 pages, 31 footnotes, 16 bibliographic references.

15046. ATTENTION-DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER AND THE USE OF RITALIN. Discusses the controversy over the use of the drug to control the problem. Covers the pro’s and con’s of the issue, and argues that Ritalin should still be used for those that need it, but urges caution in diagnosis and prescription. 6 pages, 19 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.

15042. THE MORALITY OF MEDICAL MARIJUANA. Examines the issue from two moral perspectives: respect for persons and justice. Argues in favor of respect for persons in this case, because the justice view is too rigid, lacks compassion for those who suffer, and is built on faulty reasoning. 7 pages, 16 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.

15031. THE HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM. A paper on how the nervous system affects human thoughts and actions, with special reference to a study regarding how it is able to “memorize” the steps in limb movement. 5 pages, 8 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.

15020. THE HEALTH OF AFRICAN AMERICANS OF THE LOWER MIDDLE CLASS. Examines the evidence from various studies regarding the reasons for the increased risk of certain chronic ailments among this group; topics include the lack of facilities and resources, discrimination, and environmental factors causing stress. 10 pages, 18 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references.

15002. THE CANADIAN HEALTH CARE SYSTEM. This paper will provide an overview and analysis of the past, present and future of Canada’s health care system. Following an overview of the history and evolution of the Canadian health care system, the investigation examines current conditions in Canada’s health care system and details recent efforts towards reform. Major problem areas, including patient satisfaction, provider satisfaction, funding, and service delivery delays are identified and discussed. The current state of the Canadian health system is considered within an international context, with direct comparisons to the U.S. health care system in particular and additional comparative references to the national health systems in Britain, Europe, Japan and Australia. The concluding Section identifies future trends in Canadian healthcare and makes recommendations for system reform. 23 pages, 86 footnotes, 34 bibliographic references.

14104. MEDICAL MARIJUANA. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the legal, medical and ethical aspects of the current medical marijuana controversy in the United States. Following a history of marijuana and an overview of U.S. policy towards medical marijuana, the analysis examines the medical case for and against the use of medical marijuana, looking at the pharmacology of the drug, the proposed and established medical uses for marijuana, and the short- and long-term consequences of marijuana use. The report concludes with a summary of the findings and a set of recommendations for policy change and future scientific research on this controversial issue. 13 pages, 46 footnotes, 24 bibliographic references.

14101. ANCIENT MEDICINE: MEDICINE IN ANCIENT EGYPT, GREECE & ROME. This paper provides a survey overview and analysis of medicine in three ancient civilizations: Egyptian, Greek, and Roman, with a primary focus on Egyptian medicine and a brief treatment of Greco-Roman medicine. The investigation begins with an overview of ancient Egyptian medicine, which arguably represented the earliest evidence of the development of a naturalistic-based (versus supernatural and/or magical) medicine. The overview of medicine in ancient Greece focuses on the Hippocratic tradition. Finally, the analysis considers the continued evolution of Greek medicine in the Roman Empire, with a special focus on the work of Galen, another “father of medicine” who is generally regarded as the second-greatest (after Hippocrates) physician of antiquity. 15 pages, 68 footnotes, 21 bibliographic reference.

14100. COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL THERAPY. This paper provides a profile and analysis of cognitive behavioral therapy from the perspective of a therapist-in-training. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is defined and its general approach and core techniques explicated. Includes a rationale for the use of this psychotherapeutic approach in various psychological and psychiatric illness and discusses its existing and potential application as an adjunctive therapy in serious mental illnesses. 12 pages, 37 footnotes, 19 bibliographic references.

14070. NURSING ADMINISTRATION IN AN ERA OF MANAGED CARE. A summary analysis and reaction to an interview with an assistant director of nursing for a university hospital and medical center. After a brief summary description of the interviewee and her specific position and duties, the analysis considers a range of healthcare administration topics relevant to the interviewee’s area of expertise and practice, including quality of patient care, performance measurement and appraisal, the healthcare organization’s relation to its environment, economic/financial issues, ancillary nursing support issues, staffing issues, physician-nursing relationships, and the future of nursing administration. 12 pages, 7 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.

14043. LUNG CANCER. A thorough overview and analysis of the etiology, epidemiology, clinical course, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of the world’s leading cause of cancer mortality. Discusses the multifactorial etiology of lung cancer, while stressing the primary role of smoking; considers prevention strategies and stresses the need for early-detection programs since the high rate of lung cancer mortality (overall 5-year survival is 10-14% for all types and stages) is mainly related to the fact that most lung cancer patients are already in advanced stages of disease at the time of diagnosis. 13 pages, 46 footnotes, 18 bibliography.

14024. MENINGITIS OUTBREAKS AND THE COLLEGE STUDENT. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of meningitis outbreaks among college students. The analysis begins with an overview of meningococcal disease in terms of its pathophysiology and general epidemiology. The second part of the investigation focuses specifically on meningitis in the college student population, examining the epidemiology of the disease in this population and assessing current medical knowledge and public health policy concerning meningitis in the college student population. 13 pages, 45 footnotes, 22 bibliographic references.

14003. PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC DISORDERS. This essay provides a summary and critical evaluation of the research on the psychological effects of chronic disorders. The essay begins with an examination of the research with looks at the association between chronic disorders and psychological symptoms from a broad perspective, considering the direction of the relationship and presenting models of the chronic disorder/psychological effects linkage. Following this, the essay presents a critical evaluation of several recent research studies on the psychological/psychiatric effects of chronic disorders. A summary Section presents a synopsis of the major findings as presented in the essay. 10 pages, 39 footnotes, 15 bibliographic references.

13941. PATIENT PROVIDER COMMUNICATIONS. This report investigates communication aspects of the provider-patient relationship. In particular, the analysis considers the extent to which individual patient and provider (physician and other ) characteristics influence communication in the medical consultation. In addition to looking at specific characteristics such as gender, ethnicity, patient knowledge, and physician specialty, the analysis discusses the extent to which the new managed care environment shapes the context and content of patient-provider communications. 11 pages, 35 footnotes, 15 bibliographic references.

13921. VITAMINS: MYTHS AND REALITIES. A brief overview of the importance of vitamins in maintaining human health and nutrition. Discusses the role of specific vitamins (A, Bs, C, D, E, K) differentiates between fat- and water-soluble vitamins, and discusses the pros and cons of using supplements. 5 pages, 8 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.

13912 THE STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE OF THE MEDICAL TRANSPLANT INDUSTRY. A brief overview of the medical (organ) transplant industry, looking at its strategic importance and its control in the global market. Notes that while the U.S. now dominates the global market, EU countries are key rivals who have the technology and market savvy to upstage the U.S. 5 pages, 1 footnote, 6 bibliographic sources.

13911 THE ORGAN TRANSPLANT AND PROSTHETIC DEVICE INDUSTRY. An overview and analysis of the fast-growing organ transplants and prosthetic devices sector of the larger medical equipment and supplies industry. Defines the central products in the sector; describes the size of the market in the U.S. and the world; discusses issues of technology transfer; describes related industries; examines new products; and profiles major country competitors in the sector. 9 pages, 15 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.

13887 CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN ATTITUDES TOWARDS ALCOHOLISM: THE U.S. AND THE FORMER SOVIET UNION. Compares and contrasts the public perception and social policies towards alcoholism in the United States and the former Soviet Union. Argues that the Soviets’ traditional approach to alcoholism was that it was a “social problem” amenable to treatment with social/political policies such as taxes, restrictions in production, and education. Attempts in the 1980’s to limit production proved fruitless because of the Soviet public’s attitude towards drinking as a “right.” Notes that the Soviets began moving towards a U.S.-style medical model of alcoholism in the late 1980’s. 10 pages, 26 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.

13885. PNEUMONIA. This paper provides an overview and analysis of pneumonia. Following a brief definition of the disorder, the analysis discusses the etiology, pathophysiology, clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic techniques, treatment protocols and prognosis for the disease. Recent trends concerning the emergence of multidrug resistant strains and the low rate of immunization among high-risk groups are discussed.

13884. ASTHMA. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the chronic obstructive airway disorder of asthma. Following an overview of the epidemiology of the disorder and a brief definition of the disease, the analysis considers etiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. 12 pages, 47 footnotes, 15 bibliographic references.

13876 SICKLE CELL ANEMIA. Profiles this inherited disorder which mainly affects persons of Black African ancestry. Describes the etiology, pathology, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment protocols and patient prognosis in the disease. The analysis focuses on the chronic nature of the disease and the multiple medical complications associated with its course. 6 pages, 13 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.

13869 THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA. Examines the genetic theory of the origins of schizophrenia. The analysis focuses on the genetic linkage of inherited phenotype to the onset of the disease, rather than on the symptoms or treatments of schizophrenia. Evidence for alternative causes of schizophrenia are assessed and the problems in determining a biological/genetic basis considered. Concludes that a genetic cause of some but not all forms of schizophrenia has been demonstrated. 20 pages, 29 footnotes, 31 bibliographic sources.

13849. THE ETHICS OF HUMAN CLONING. Focusing on the recent developments in genetic engineering and cloning, this paper considers the ethics of cloning human beings. Following a brief background discussion of human cloning and genetic engineering, the analysis considers the arguments for and against human cloning. Concludes that human cloning is ethically unacceptable. 7 pages, 19 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.

13831 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL PROFILE OF PNEUMOCOCCAL PNEUMONIA. Profiles the medical diagnosis and treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia. Begins with an overview of the pathogenesis of the disease and a description of its major forms and then provides a profile of the epidemiology, etiology, clinical course, symptoms and prognosis; and diagnosis and treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia. 5 pages, 8 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.

13809 NURSING LEADERSHIP. An analysis of leadership and management in nursing from the perspective of a charge nurse at the Center for Pediatric Medicine and Rehabilitation of the New York Foundling Hospital. Describes the role and duties of the pediatric intensive care unit charge nurse and discusses the charge nurses’ expected leadership style and leadership responsibilities related to decision-making, motivation and discipline. 10 pages, 15 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.

13801 DRUGS SHOULD BE LEGALIZED. Argues in favor of the legalization of all currently illegal drugs as controlled substances. Offers three main arguments for legalization: 1) the supply of illegal drugs and the demand for them can never be stopped; 2) law enforcement and social service systems cannot cope with the problems of underground drug use; and 3) the social and medical costs of continuing the ‘war on drugs’ far outweighs the potential risks of legalizing and controlling drugs. 8 pages, 3 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.

13756 NURSING PERSPECTIVES ON THE HEALTH INSURANCE CRISIS. Following an overview of the historical development of health insurance in the U.S. (including government-subsidized Medicare and Medicaid as well as private, voluntary plans), this investigation looks at contemporary changes/crises in the health insurance industry (the evolution of managed care, the financial crisis in health care funding) and its particular impact on the nursing profession. 9 pages, 19 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.

13738. HEALTH CARE IN THE UNITED STATES: PROS AND CONS OF SOCIALIZED MEDICINE. An analysis of the potential advantages and disadvantages to implementing a national system of universal health care in the U.S. Provides an overview of the existing U.S. system, as contrasted with socialized medicine models in the U.K., Europe and Japan. Makes the case that the U.S. should adopt a universal system of its own to ensure fairness and full access. 8 pages, 14 footnotes, 11 bibliographic reference.

13718 PREGNANT WOMEN AND DRUG USE: IMPACT ON THE FETUS. This study investigates the potential relationship between drug use by expectant mothers and the appearance of developmental disabilities in their offspring. Through an analytical review of the empirical literature on fetal drug exposure, the investigation tests the hypothesis that there is a positive correlation between expectant mothers’ drug/alcohol abuse and the occurrence of a wide range of development disabilities in their offspring. Concludes that there is significant support for the hypothesis in terms of alcohol, heroin, cocaine, and tobacco use by pregnant women. 14 pages, 14 footnotes, 26 bibliographic sources.

13701. ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE: A COMPARISON OF TREATMENT APPROACHES. Following a review of the because potential and dangers of alcohol and drug use and the diagnosis of alcoholism and/or addiction, this paper presents an overview of contemporary treatment philosophies and strategies. Describes various approaches including medically-supervised detoxification, counseling and psychotherapy, family therapy, 12-step program (e.g., AA), and inpatient rehab centers such as the Betty Ford Center. 16 pages, 21 footnotes, 21 bibliographic references.

13699 ANOREXIA AND BULIMIA: SYMPTOMS AND DIAGNOSIS. This paper describes the symptoms and diagnosis of these two major eating disorders, along with the problem of compulsive overeating and dieting. Identifies the principal causes of the major eating disorders found in American society and looks at the psychological and physiological impact of these disorders. 11 pages, 17 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.

13695 DIABETES: AN OVERVIEW. An overview of this endocrine disease, looking at both Type 1 (insulin-dependent) and Type 2 (non insulin-dependent) varieties. Considers the major causes of the disorder, describes the symptoms and diagnostic procedures, describes the effects and complications of diabetes, and discusses treatment and prognosis. 8 pages, 7 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.

13693. DEATH AND DYING. A personalized discussion of death and dying by a writer who discusses the links between Kubler-Ross’s “stages of dying” and the grief process experienced by a teenage survivor coping with the terminal illness of a parent. Outlines contemporary theories of death and dying and considers the role and importance of funeral and other post-death rituals for survivors. 12 pages, 7 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.

13672 BREAST-FEEDING: THIRD WORLD VS. FIRST WORLD PRACTICES. Examines the practice of breast-feeding in underdeveloped countries compared to practices in the U.S. and the rest of the developed world. Contrasts the recent reversal of the bottle feeding trend and return to breast-feeding in the U.S. with the continuing efforts to stifle breast-feeding in the Third World through the aggressive promotional efforts of Nestle, Carnation and other global leaders in the formula business. 8 pages, 19 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.

13652 ALCOHOLISM AND MARRIAGE. An investigation and review of literature on the impact of alcoholism on marriage, viewing the disease in its social context as a part of the marriage relationship and as a significant factor in the dynamics of the “alcoholic family.” Argues that the alcoholic marriage is impacted by alcoholism in three main ways: 1) through its role as a dysfunctional element; 2) as a source of co-dependency or mutual addiction; and 3) as a disease process. 19 pages, 29 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources.

13651 MANDATORY AIDS EDUCATION IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. An investigation of the legal (mainly Constitutional) issues surrounding AIDS education in the public schools. Written from the perspective of the early 1990’s, the analysis considers legal precedents and then-current court cases surrounding AIDS education, and focuses on questions concerning the timing and content of AIDS curricula. In considering Constitutional issues, argues that while a necessary and valuable part of public education, AIDS education has not been shown to legally supersede parents’ rights to protect their children from educational material they deem “offensive” and/or in conflict with their religious beliefs. 21 pages, 27 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources.

13631. AIDS AND THE DEMOGRAPHIC DISASTER IN AFRICA. This paper examines the demographic effects of AIDS in Africa. Focusing on the hardest-hit countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, the analysis considers the present and future impact of the AIDS epidemic on major demographic measures such as fertility, mortality, life expectancy, gender, age, and family structure. 13 pages, 61 footnotes, 36 bibliographic references.

13587. WITHHOLDING AND/OR WITHDRAWING TREATMENT: PATIENT SELF DETERMINATION VS. MEDICAL GOALS. This report provides an overview and analysis of the ethical, legal, and practical issues surrounding the debate over providing, withholding and/or withdrawing treatment and its intersection with patients’ rights to self-determination within the context of the medical futility dilemma. The analysis begins with a background discussion of the Patient Self Determination Act (PSDA) of 1990 and an identification of the major stakeholders in the decision to withhold, withdraw or provide treatment which may be deemed ‘medically futile”. The next sections consider the legal and ethical issues surrounding the decision to withhold/withdraw treatment. Following this, the analysis looks at the evidence concerning the outcomes of the Patient Self Determination Act and considers some of the major problems and barriers in implementing the patient’s right to act as the chief decision-maker in these decisions. 15 pages, 42 footnotes, 25 bibliographic references.

13581. THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT. A paper on the international effort to map and sequence the entire structure of human DNA. Both the potential benefits of the project, and its ethical, legal and social implications, are discussed. 11 pages, 31 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.

13576. HEROIN DEPENDENCY. A review and analysis of the problem of heroin dependency. Defines Heroin addiction, describes its signs and symptoms, discusses its consequences for the individual and society; analyzes the physiological, psychological, and sociological factors underlying its causation; and profiles traditional (methadone maintenance) and alternative treatment approaches. Concludes that political factors and discriminatory attitudes towards addicts have precluded the widespread implementation of effective treatment programs. 12p 38 footnotes, 15 bibliographic references.

13557. HEPATITIS C. This paper provides an overview and analysis of hepatitis C. Although the information provided is drawn from the professional health care literature, the intent of this paper is to provide an overview of hepatitis in a language and format understandable to the nonprofessional, “lay” audience. The first Section profiles the anatomy and patho-physiology of hepatitis C, including virus transmission, the structure of the virus, ad the disease process. The sections discuss diagnostic measures and procedures and usual treatment (s) for HCV infection. A Section on “recent developments” looks at new treatment modalities, research trends, and provides directions on how clients can locate new information about the disease process. The last two sections discuss complications of the disease process and psychosocial aspects of HCV infection, looking at how the disease affects the quality of life for clients and their families. The appendix includes a list of community resources and organizations and a nursing care plan. 14 pages + appendix; 65 footnotes, 34 bibliographic references.

13550. CLIMATE CHANGE AND HEALTH EFFECTS: This paper provides an overview and analysis of the potential effects on human health occurring as a result of climate change. The first Section below offers a brief discussion of climate change models and the various inter-related factors which must be considered when predicting the effects of climate change on human health. Following this, the analysis looks at the potential direct and indirect consequences of climate change for human health. In taking into consideration the potential health consequences of global climate change, this investigation looks at the likely impact not only in the tropical and sub-tropical regions (areas where he population is expected to be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change) but also in the developed temperate regions (areas where the actual magnitude of climate change is likely to be the greatest). 12 pages, 42 footnotes, 25 bibliographic references.

13546. GLOBAL WARMING : EFFECTS ON HEALTH AND HEALTHCARE IN THE TROPICS: This paper provides an overview and assessment of how global warming and climate change will impact the health of people in the tropics and the delivery of health care services in the tropics. The paper beings with a brief review of the traditional and current focus of health care delivery in the tropics. The next Section considers some of the likely impacts of climate change on the health of people living in the tropics. The final Section examines the impact of these changes on health care delivery and health care delivery needs in the tropics.

13531. SEX DIFFERENCES IN NEUROANATOMY: This paper provides an overview and analysis of the contemporary scientific literature on sex differences in neuroanatomy. Following a discussion of some of the central methodological problems and issues which have made the resolution of this controversy more difficult, the analysis surveys recent research on sexual dimorphism in neuroanatomy, considering the evidence from studies on structural differences in parts of the brain; gender and cognition; hormonal influences; sexual differences in brain development and brain aging; and sexual differences in brain-based psychopathologies. 12 pages, 41 footnotes, 19 bibliographic references.

13523. MEDICARE REIMBURSEMENT: FFS VERSUS HMOs: This paper reviews historical and current Medicare reimbursement systems in its fee-for-service and HMO plans. Describes historical approaches to reimbursement, discusses the implementation of the Prospective Payment System (PPS) and the impact of Diagnostic-Related-Groups (DRGs) as well as the RBRVS for reimbursing physicians. Analyzes Medicare’s capitated method for HMO reimbursement and identifies weaknesses. A concluding Section discusses the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA) and its impact on Medicare reimbursement. 12 pages, 53 footnotes, 21 bibliographic references.

13522. THE EVOLUTION OF MANAGED CARE IN MEDICARE HMOs: This paper traces the history and development of managed care with the Medicare system, focusing on Medicare’s experience with HMOs. Following a background discussion on the development and history of HMOs in general, the analysis traces the early history of HMOs in Medicare, analyzes the growth and development of Medicare HMOs, and examines recent trends in Medicare managed care. 15 pages, 32 footnotes, 19 bibliographic references.

13521. MEDICARE HMOs: THE TRACK RECORD SO FAR: Presents an assessment and evaluation of Medicare HMOs versus traditional Medicare fee-for-service programs. Assesses Medicare HMOs in terms of quality of care and outcome studies, cost effectiveness, scope of service, patient access, and patient satisfaction. Discusses major areas of concern and/or gaps in service including HMO selection bias in enrollment and the exclusion of vulnerable groups, prescription drug coverage, coverage for long-term care, and coverage for mental health and Alzheimer’s disease. 19 pages, 132 footnotes, 56 bibliographic references.

13520. HISTORY OF MEDICARE: This paper presents a history and analysis of the Medicare program. The first Section traces the early fight over and formation of Medicare. Section two profiles the structure and organization of Medicare and includes a discussion of Medicaid. Section three focuses on how Medicare has evolved and changed over the years and on its current condition. A concluding Section discusses the impetus for Medicare reform and provides an overview of current reform proposals. 15 pages, 52 footnotes, 23 bibliographic references.

13507. THE NURSE PRACTITIONER. Examines the role of the nurse practitioner in the contemporary health care setting, considering how the development of the NP role has affected the nursing profession overall and how nurse practitioners serve the social and medical needs of their communities. Traces the history of NP development and discusses opposition from Medical Doctors (MD). 8 pages, 20 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.

13503. THE SOCIAL DEFINITIONS OF DEATH IN AMERICA. Moving from the assumption that life and death are socially defined, this report considers how death is organized and debated within American culture and in the context of the US healthcare system. Argues that US society presents an ambiguous view of death which tends to discourage individuals’ direct confrontations with death’s inevitability. 6 pages, 19 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.

13502. THE ACTORS IN THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM. This report discusses and analyzes the major actors in the health care system: the people who provide health care (physicians, nurses) and the institutional frameworks (hospitals, managed care systems, third party payers, and government programs and policies) within which they carry out their professional duties. The analysis places particular emphasis on how the systems and its major actors relate to power and social change. 6 pages, 18 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.

13501. THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM AS A SOCIAL CONTROL SYSTEM. This essay considers how the contemporary health care system and its primary actors – notably physicians and other health care providers as well as the managed care and insurance administrators – functions as a social control system. It is argued that in its capacity to function as a social control system, the health care system also has the ability to shape people’s view of health and illness and to define or redefine socially appropriate roles of health-related behaviors. 6 pages, 24 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.

13500. SOCIOLOGY VERSUS THE MEDICAL AND POLITICAL MODELS OF HEALTH. The sociological model of health and illness differs from both the political and the medical model. Following an overview of how these three models differ in terms of their definitions of health and illness, and how these three models are distinguished in terms of their approach towards improving health and reducing illness, this essay illustrates the differences in these models through an analysis of a few specific examples of the different approach each model takes in considering the role of social factors in health and illness and healthcare delivery. 6 pages, 12 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.

13498. AMERICAN SOCIAL POLICY AND POLIO. How the government and private organizations dealt with the ailment from the first major epidemics of the 1890s to the development of the Salk and Sabin vaccines. Includes the role of President Roosevelt, the fund-raising of the March of Dimes, and the problems of the 1955 field trials. 25 pages, 86 footnotes, 18 bibliographic references.

13475. LISTENING TO PROZAC (KRAMER). Discusses the implications of the book regarding the use of drugs to alter personality, and how this relates to the issue of what it means to be human. Argues that the book’s research lacks scientific methodology and some of the author’s claims are exaggerated, yet the work is important for its contribution to the public debate on drug therapies. 8 pages, 33 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.

13461. MOOD DISORDERS: A FOCUS ON BIPOLAR DISORDER FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE TREATING CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGIST. . Following an overview of the prevalence, etiology, and symptomatology of the principal mood disorders (i.e., major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder), this paper focuses on the diagnosis and treatment (medication and psychotherapeutic) of bipolar disorder (focusing on bipolar I and bipolar II). The intended audience for this review is the clinical psychologist. Although medication treatment under the primary direction of a psychiatrist is the generally accepted first-line treatment for both major depression and bipolar disorder, “talk therapies” (particularly cognitive-behavioral therapies) under the direction of a skilled and trained clinical psychologist are a vital adjunctive treatment modality in mood disorders. 17 pages, 42 footnotes, 28 bibliographic references.

13460. HIV & AIDS. This paper provides an overview and analysis of current knowledge of HIV infection and AIDS, with a focus on the dynamics of the virus and its behavior within the human host, the natural history and clinical course of HIV infection and AIDS, and the current state-of-the art in treating HIV infection and AIDS. The discussion of treatment, while concentrating on contemporary combination antiretroviral therapy, also considers the existing and emerging role of immune therapies and alternative therapies in HIV and AIDS disease management. 13 pages, 79 footnotes, 24 bibliographic references.

13459. PROSTATE CANCER. This paper provides an overview and analysis of prostate cancer, with a focus on current and emerging treatment strategies. Following a definition/description of prostate cancer, an overview of its biology and clinical course, and a discussion of its epidemiology and etiology, the analysis examines current and emerging preventive, palliative, and “curative” strategies in the treatment of prostate cancer. 14 pages, 76 footnotes, 34 bibliographic references.

13457. PREVENTING E coli OUTBREAKS: AN ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIORAL MANAGEMENT INTERVENTION. Based on an analysis of a recent article in the Journal of Infectious Disease focused on the sources and risk factors for E coli infection, this paper presents a planned organizational behavioral management intervention. The intervention consists of a safe food handling and hand washing training and education program for food handlers in fast food restaurants. 9 pages, 7 footnotes, 2 bibliographic references.

13456. HEALTH PROMOTION AND SOCIAL MARKETING: TEEN SMOKING. This paper presents a proposed smoking cessation program aimed at teen smokers. Reviews the literature on teen smoking, the rationale for providing teen smoking cessation programs, and the special factors which must be considered in developing a smoking cessation program for teens versus adults. Describes the main components of the program, which includes behavioral therapy, relapse-prevention therapy, and monetary incentives. Presents a media strategy for marketing the program and recruiting teen subjects. Concludes with an outline of an evaluation of the intervention. 10 pages, 23 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references.

13455. PERSONAL CHANGE PROJECT: A STOP-SMOKING PROGRAM. Presents a stop-smoking program designed for a middle-aged woman who has smoked approximately two packs per day for 25 years and who has hesitated to attempt quitting again because of concerns over weight gain. Discusses scientific findings on weight gain and smoking cessation. Designs a behavioral program based on the specific needs/risks of the target smoker, outlines a recording system, graphs results for first 20 days. appendices, 18 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.

13454. COMMUNITY HEALTH PROMOTION: PREVENTING HIV. Drawing upon a recent article in the journal AIDS Education and Prevention (Wong, Chng, & Lo, 1998), this paper analyzes a community level health promotion program which seeks to prevent HIV transmission and infection among urban-dwelling Asian- and Pacific Islander Americans. Although the focus article describes six different such programs (in Honolulu, San Francisco, Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia, and Boston), the subsequent analysis draws on additional literature to focus most closely on the merits/shortcomings of the community intervention program in New York City and the special needs/priorities of the Asian population in that area. 9 pages, 13 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references.

13428. THE ROLE OF NURSES IN TRAVEL MEDICINE. Argues that nursing professionals can assume a primary role in the rapidly growing field of travel medicine. Following a history and overview of the development of travel medicine, the analysis traces the major roles and activities of the travel medicine provider and the vital role to be played by nurses. 11 pages, 39 footnotes, 17 bibliographic references.

13421. ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE AND THE NIH. This paper provides an overview and analysis of NIH-mediated activities in the area of alternative and complementary medicine. The first Section traces the history of CAM at the NIH and describes the current and historical mission of the Office of Alternative Medicine (now the National Center). Following this, the analysis looks at NIH-funded studies of alternative medicine, focusing on the general direction of these studies and highlighting consensus statements on various CAM modalities. The next Section addresses issues of methodology in the scientific study of CAM, with particular reference to NIH position statements on this issue. The remaining sections examine how alternative medicine “fits” within conventional medicine and the existing healthcare reimbursement system and how it is viewed by healthcare practitioners from both the “alternative” and “conventional” ends of the spectrum. 26 pages, 72 footnotes, 32 bibliographic references.

13400. PRESCRIPTION PRIVILEGES FOR PSYCHOLOGISTS? This paper provides an overview and analysis of the controversy surrounding the provision of prescription privileges for psychologists. Following a brief overview of some of the forces driving the push for prescription privileges, the major points of contention, and an outline of the principal parties supporting each side, the analysis reviews the arguments both for and against prescription privileges for psychologists. A concluding Section presents recommendations based on the merits of each side of the controversy and argues that prescription privileges should not be granted to psychologists. 11 pages, 29 footnotes, 15 bibliographic references.

13398. A REVIEW OF 10 CASES IN CLASSIC CASES IN MEDICAL ETHICS BY GREGORY PENCE. . Ten 1-page summary overview and comments on ten different chapters of Pence’s book dealing with significant issues of medical ethics. Considers abortion, transplant organ allocation, animal experimentation, human experimentation, involuntary psychiatric commitment, control of teen pregnancy, surrogacy, physician-assisted dying, and mandatory testing for HIV. 10 pages, 14 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference.

13395. CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS. A comprehensive overview of this parasitic tropical disease with a focus on disease management and laboratory findings. Considers etiology, epidemiology, cell biology, pathology, immunology, diagnostic procedures, treatment (pharmacologic, physical) strategies, and prevention and control strategies. 34 pages, 191 footnotes, 52 bibliographic references.

13392. VIRUSES AND CANCER. This paper provides an overview of analysis of the viral etiology of human cancer. Following a brief introduction to cancer, the analysis profiles the known and suspected links between specific viruses and cancer, considers the biological mechanisms of viral action in cancer, and discusses recent research on the links between viruses and cancer. 10 pages, 52 footnotes, 24 bibliographic references.

13385. MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS. This paper provides an overview and analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a global health emergency. The analysis considers factors related to the resurgence of TB and the emergence of treatment-resistant strains, transmission of the bacillus, and strategies to prevent transmission and control the progress of the disease in infected individuals. Because of its probable vital role in the development of effective vaccine and treatment strategies, information about the genome of this organism – which has recently been mapped in its entirety by Cole, et al. (1998) – is also presented. 10 pages, 44 footnotes, 16 bibliographic references.

13370. THE ETHICS OF INVOLUNTARY PSYCHIATRIC COMMITMENT. Considers the controversial biomedical ethics issues related to involuntary commitment of the mentally ill, weighing the patients’ rights and patient autonomy arguments against and the utilitarian and parents patriae arguments in favor of involuntary commitment. Examines the extent to which the “purity” of these opposing moral arguments have been confounded and diluted by the politics of deinstitutionalization, the problem of homelessness and the public’s fear of the mentally ill. 9 pages, 17 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.

13366. GENDER DISCRIMINATION AND WOMEN’S HEALTH. This essay takes the position that discrimination against women, in both developed and developing societies, has had a profoundly negative impact on women’s health in particular and the state of world health in general. Examines the role of culture and ethnicity, describes particular aspects of gender-biased health care and outcomes, considers whether or not such discrimination can be ended and looks at the appropriate role for the health educator. 5 pages, 13 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.

13365. PROPOSAL FOR A SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAM. This paper presents a sample health education program for a local school. The school targeted for intervention is a New York City metro area urban middle school with a multi-ethnic student body population of 356. Based on a survey of students’ health behaviors, specific health threats (tobacco use and risky sexual behaviors) were identified for the community and a program aimed at addressing these threats developed. The analysis considers the prerequisites for plan implementation (e.g., establishing a need for the program, securing funding, etc.); describes the components of the school health program; considers the major barriers to program implementation; takes into account the impact of racism on the school on program success; plans for increasing public awareness of the need for the program; develops a strategy for engaging the participation of local senior citizens; and formulates responses to potential parental objections to the program. 15 pages, 18 footnotes, 11 bibliographic references.

13364. PROFILE OF A LEADER IN COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH. Current problems and issues in community mental health are discussed in this report which presents a summary review and analysis of a confidential interview with a leader in community mental health in a major metropolitan area. Subjects covered in the interview include duties, responsibilities and qualifications for the position, the role of local government agencies, issues related to funding, and cultural/ethnic issues. A brief concluding Section presents summary research on how community mental health issues are addressed in other countries, with a look at both the developed and the developing world. An organizational chart of the community mental health center profiled in this report is included as an appendix. 10 pages + appendix, 12 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.

13323. MANAGED CARE: IMPACT ON SOCIAL SERVICES/MENTAL HEALTH CARE.This paper examines the impact of the managed care paradigm on the delivery of mental health (or, as it is now called, behavioral health) care services, with special focus on the effects of managed care on social workers (MSWs, LCSWs, BSWs) and the range/scope of services these health care workers provide. Includes an overview and description of managed care as it has evolved within and impacted mental health care service delivery. Changes in reimbursement, controls on providers, and the changing role of various providers (e.g., psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, counselors) within the evolving system are examined. Assesses the impact of the new system on social workers and their patients/clients. 16 pages, 45 footnotes, 22 bibliographic references.

13320. POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER. This paper presents an overview and analysis of post traumatic stress disorder with an emphasis on its association with comorbid alcohol and substance abuse disorders. The phenomenology of PTSD is described, including its symptomology, diagnostic classification, course of illness, and prevalence. Biological as well as psychological components of the disorder are considered. To further understanding of how to treat this disorder, the analysis considers its etiology and the role of comorbid psychiatric disorders, particularly substance/alcohol abuse. The concluding Section examines treatment protocols, considering pharmacological, psychotherapeutic, and preventive interventions with special attention to treatment of dually diagnosed PTSD and substance abuse. 30 pages, 142 footnotes, 43 bibliographic references.

13319. MARKETING PRESCRIPTION DRUGS DIRECTLY TO CONSUMERS. Discusses the ethical issues involved in this practice, and argues in favor of a patient’s right to information and self-determination. On this basis, also argues for a “code of ethics” to ensure truthfulness and full disclosure in drug ads. 6 pages, 18 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.

13229. (UN)COORDINATION IN INTERNATIONAL HEALTH POLICIES & PROGRAMS. This report addresses an issue which is widely perceived to be at the crux of the “crisis” in international health – the lack of coordination between external agencies and the policy conflict over the priorities and purposes of international health cooperation. It is argued that as the World Bank has increasingly taken the leadership role in international health policy, the de facto mandate for global cooperation in health has shifted from the World Health Organization’s mandate of “the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible levels of health” to the economic development agenda of the World Bank. At the same time, the forces of globalization and their impact on the health of developing and newly industrializing countries has led a number of analysts to advocate a re-focusing of the mandate on the principles of social justice. 6 pages, 15 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.

13219. STOPPING THE SPREAD OF AIDS IN THE PHILIPPINES: HEALTH PROGRAM PROPOSAL. This paper presents a proposal for controlling the spread of AIDS in the Philippines. The proposed intervention is aimed at a category of the population deemed to be at especially high risk for contracting the disease – commercial sex workers (registered and freelance). Following a description of the nature and scope of the problem and a brief justification for why intervention is necessary for this problem, the analysis presents a program to reduce the problem. The proposal calls for a three-pronged intervention of: 1) AIDS education for commercial sex workers; 2) Distribution of free condoms; and 3) a PR campaign aimed at encouraging Filipino men to use condoms. 10 pages, 35 footnotes, 15 bibliographic references.

13214. TALK THERAPY: HOW EFFECTIVE IS IT? This report provides a review and analysis of the use and effectiveness of talk therapy as a treatment modality in a variety of psychological and psychiatric disorders. Following a brief definition of talk therapy and a discussion of its objectives and various approaches, the analysis reviews current literature on the evidence for the effectiveness of talk therapy, both in general and in specific disorders and examines some of the factors (e.g., length of treatment, stage of illness, quality of therapy/therapist, type of psychotherapy, etc.) which may mitigate its effectiveness. A concluding Section considers some of the current challenges to the successful implementation of talk therapy modalities, with special reference to the role of managed care. 11 pages, 48 footnotes, 21 bibliographic references.

13205. ARTIFICIAL HEART. Discusses the importance of this device and describes how it works. Also describes recent developments (such as a simplified device for left ventricle failures) that have made it more portable and permanent, as well as safer. 5 pages, 25 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.

13203. VIRTUAL REALITY IN HEALTH CARE. This paper examines the history, current application, and potential use of one exciting new technological tool for health care – virtual reality. Following a definition of key terms background discussion on the uses of virtual reality and related technologies in health care, the analysis describes and analyzes the current applications of virtual reality in the health care sector, considering the rationale for and advantages of its use. The next sections examine some of the barriers to and problems in advancing the use of VR in health care, and considers possible steps to overcome these barriers. A concluding Section summarizes the future trends of virtual reality in health care. 16 pages, 45 footnotes, 23 bibliographic references.

13181. WHAT THE US CAN LEARN FROM OTHER HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS. This essay considers what the U.S. can learn from the experiences of other countries in the establishment and maintenance of an affordable system of healthcare which equitably distributes high-quality services to the entire population. Prior to elaborating some of the specific things that US healthcare policymakers might learn from other systems, the analysis considers both the limitations and the opportunities for learning from other countries. 6 pages, 15 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.

13161. GENITAL HERPES: A PUBLIC HEALTH PROBLEM. Provides a public health profile and analysis of this common sexually-transmitted disease. Considers disease incidence and prevalence, clinical features, risk factors, and public health measures to address the problem. 7 pages, 25 footnotes, 18 bibliographic references.

13148. SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME (SIDS). Discusses possible causes of the problem, including genetic heart disorder and health habits of the mother. Focuses especially on the importance of the supine sleep position. Also discusses studies on the effectiveness of a recent campaign to educate mothers on the issue and concludes that there is a need for more work in this area. 10 pages, 37 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.

13126. MANAGED CARE: IMPACT ON THE POOR. This report investigates the question of whether poor people – a group which has historically faced many disadvantages in the health care system – will be better off under managed care. Considers the growing dominance of managed care in both the private and public sectors, examines the poor’s access to health care, and considers quality of care issues. Concludes that the growing dominance of managed care will reduce the poor’s access to care and will increasingly pigeon-hole them within a second-class system of health care. 9 pages, 28 footnotes, 16 bibliographic references.

13108. OLIGOPOLY IN THE PHARMACEUTICALS INDUSTRY. Looks at the drug industry as an example of a structural oligopoly; domination of the market by a few players is attributed to high R & D costs, patent protections, brand name recognition, and mergers and acquisitions that keep out new competitors. Eli Lilly is cited as a case example of a major industry player with a position protected by famous trade names and growth into biotechnology and non-drug businesses. 11 pages, 14 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.

13090. CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN HEALTH CARE: THE NATIVE AMERICAN. To illustrate the importance of cultural sensitivity in health care interactions, this paper provides an overview of Native American approaches and beliefs about health and illness. Some of the major questions considered in this investigation include the following: How do Native Americans view health and illness? How do Native American healing practices differ from those of the dominant culture? Do Native Americans have any special health care concerns relating to their culture or lifestyle? The starting point for this overview was an interview with a Native American man. The interview material is supplemented by and supported with information drawn from a review of scholarly literature on Native American health systems. 10 pages, 22 footnotes, 13 bibliographic references.

13047. CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME. This report provides an overview and analysis of the current medical/psychiatric literature on chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Defines CFS, discusses its prevalence, traces its history, outlines diagnostic criteria and differential diagnosis, profiles symptoms, examines etiology and risk factors, and discusses treatment strategies. Concludes that CFS is a multi-faceted disorder with a multi-system etiology and heterogeneous course of illness. 16 pages, 43 footnotes, 18 bibliographic references.

13045. DISEASE MANAGEMENT. The report provides an overview and analysis of “disease management” a form of managed care aimed at controlling costs and improving patient outcomes for common chronic diseases such as asthma, diabetes, hypertension, low-back pain, headache, and depression. Following an overview of the crisis of chronic care, the report defines disease management, outlines its central objectives and components, discusses its advantages and disadvantages, and defines the factors which differentiate effective from ineffective disease management programs. 11 pages, 32 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.

13044. ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE: NATUROPATHY. This report draws on a scholarly review of literature and an interview with a licensed naturopathic physician (N.D.) to present an overview and analysis of naturopathy, an established formal system of alternative medicine indigenous to the United States. Defines naturopathy, traces its history, profiles underlying principles, discusses major treatment modalities, profiles training and licensing procedures, and considers the accomplishments and limitations of this system of alternative/complementary medicine. 11 pages, 26 footnotes, 11 bibliographic references.

13040. HEALTHY AGING. This report focuses on the issue of “healthy aging” through an interview with an elderly person who represents a role model of a senior who has mastered the challenge of “healthy aging” and through an analysis of scholarly literature on the subject of healthy aging. 10 pages, 16 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.

13028. A FAMILY STRESS MANAGEMENT PROGRAM. This report presents a personal assessment and a stress management program design for a hypothetical young married couple experiencing family dysfunction and stress in their lives. The second part of the paper summarizes and reviews community resources which offer professional help to people experiencing depression, anxiety, family dysfunction, or other stress-related problems. In addition to discussing general resources which can be located within most US communities, the analysis identifies specific resources in the New York metro area, 10 pages, 8 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.

13024. TQM IMPLEMENTATION IN HOSPITALS: SUCCESS OR FAILURE? This report examines the implementation of total quality management (TQM, often used interchangeably with the term continuous quality improvement or CQI within the hospital setting) in hospitals. Following an overview of the origin and principles behind total quality management (with a focus on the Deming model) as it evolved within industries outside of the healthcare setting and a brief history of TQM’s evolution within the hospital setting, the report presents a review and analysis of the literature on the successes and failures of TQM implementation in the hospital setting. Another Section of the report presents a comparative assessment of TQM in other industries and a discussion of its general “goodness of fit” with hospitals and the current health care environment. A concluding Section summarizes the major findings of the review, draws conclusions about the future of TQM in hospitals, and makes recommendations for further investigation. 30 pages, 115 footnotes, 43 bibliographic references.

12713. EASTERN AND WESTERN PHILOSOPHIES OF HEALTH AND WELLNESS. A historical survey which contrasts Eastern holistic methods with those of Western medicine. The Eastern method tries to bring the body into harmony with nature, while the Western method is concerned with healing individual parts of the body. The paper concludes by noting the current trend in the West of merging these two medical philosophies. 7 pages, 25 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.

12712. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EATING DISORDERS AND ADDICTIVE BEHAVIORS. Discusses the addictive potential of food and the link between eating disorders and substance abuse. Studies have shown bulimia to be more strongly related than anorexia nervosa, but it is still not known why some bulimics become substance abusers and others do not. 6 pages, 25 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.

12711. EUTHANASIA AS A SOCIAL POLICY. This report makes the case for the legalization of euthanasia (mercy-killings) within a strictly controlled and monitored system. Traces the history of euthanasia and changing social attitudes towards mercy killing with the advancement in life-sustaining medical technologies. Recommends a framework of standards and guidelines similar to that adopted in the Netherlands and cautions that the decision to invoke the euthanasia option must always be individualized. 15 pages, 23 footnotes, 18 bibliographic references.

12710. THE CONCEPT OF CARING IN NURSING. The paper explores the relevance of caring to nursing theory through a comparative analysis of Sister Callista Roy’s Adaptation Model of Nursing and Betty Neuman’s Neuman Systems Model. The paper shows how such related nursing practices as nursing assessment, nursing care planning, and psychological intervention can be connected to a larger model of nursing as a caring profession. 14 pages, 28 footnotes, 14 bibliographic references.

12709. CONSUMER EXPECTATIONS AND THE CHANGING US HEALTHCARE SYSTEM. This paper which examines consumer expectations of health care within the context of the current transformations in the U.S. health care industry. The paper begins with an overview of the central ethical debate in health care delivery and the stance of the US consumer on the debate between healthcare as a right and health care as a consumer good. The rest of the paper focuses on the transformation of the US health care industry and consumer responses to this transformation. Includes discussions of the effect of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 and the 1996 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. A concluding Section examines the extent to which private market, “managed competition” in health care can realistically meet (or approach) consumer expectations of health care. 24 pages, 56 footnotes, 37 bibliographic references.

12707. DIET PILLS. A paper on the heart problems caused by the uses of fen-phen and Redux. Discusses case studies and controversies, as well as the response of the medical community and the FDA. Concludes by arguing that people with mild weight problems should seek healthier alternatives (diet and exercise). 9 pages, 53 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.

12514. “ATTENTION: AGING MEN.” Analysis of 1996 Newsweek article concerned with the use of hormone replacement therapy to reverse the effects of aging. discusses the social, economic, educational and public health implications of the article, and concludes with the view that the therapy is risky and that exercise and diet are better ways to counter aging. 5 pages, 8 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.

12513. “WHAT’S THE WINDOW FOR MAKING BABIES?” Analysis of 1996 article from U.S. News On-Line on the determination of when women are most fertile. The discovery of more precise information is called a “break-through,” and the implications for natural family planning and the use of home test kits are discussed. 5 pages, 9 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.

12512. “WHAT’S WRONG WITH OUR SPERM?” Analysis of 1996 Time article reporting on recent declining sperm counts in men. Discusses the implications of this finding, and the search for its cause and possible solutions. Also criticizes a logical fallacy in the article and suggests that a decline in fertility may actually be good for reducing overpopulation. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 2 bibliographic references.

12511. “A HIGH-TECH DEBATE OVER WOMEN’S BONES.” Analysis of 1996 U.S. News On-Line article concerning osteoporosis and its risk factors. Emphasizes the implications of two recent findings: the drug Fosamex may relieve some of the symptoms of the disorder, and early detection requires a need for more access to X-ray machines. 5 pages, 11 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.

12510. THE FINANCIAL IMPACT OF PREVENTIVE HEALTH CARE. This paper seeks to provide a general summary and analysis of the financial impact of preventive care. The analysis begins with an overview of the intuitive arguments suggesting the clinical and cost effectiveness of preventive health care. The next Section examines the methodology (and problems therein) of assessing the financial impact of preventive care. A concluding Section reviews the recent literature on the problems and promises of preventive health care. 12 pages, 4 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.

12509. DEATH AND THE ELDERLY. Analyzes and profiles the death-related encounters, attitudes, and reflections of elderly people through an examination of the literature on death and dying and the elderly and interviews with two elderly widows and one registered nurse who works with the elderly. Specific issues examined within the analysis include dealing with the death of a spouse. bereavement and coping, personal illness and citing vitality, relations with family and friends, and attitude towards death. 12 pages, 29 footnotes, 16 bibliographic references.

12507. DEATH ALL AROUND US: IMAGES OF DEATH IN MEDIA & POPULAR CULTURE. This paper provides an analysis and exploration of Americans’ ambivalent attitudes towards death as evidenced through death images in the media and popular culture. As a starting point for the analysis, a journal of death images encountered via newspapers, news programs, televisions, movies, the radio and media/popular culture outlets was recorded for a two-week period in the Spring of 1997, Following a summary of the findings from this record, the analysis considers and discusses some of the major trends and themes identified in the popular images and impressions of death. 12 pages, 39 footnotes, 22 bibliographic references.

12506. DISCUSSION OF A CENTRAL EXPERIMENT: ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND CHILDHOOD CANCER. Considers the possible dangers of EMFs on human health through a review and analysis of Feychting and Ahlbom’s (1993) seminal empirical epidemiological study of EMF-cancer links in a group of Swedish children. Defines the EMF-human health problem, discusses the epidemiological approach, and comprehensively reviews the study and the critical response to it. 12 pages, 33 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.

12505. WEIGHT MANAGEMENT AND EATING DISORDERS. This paper provides an overview and investigation of weight management and eating disorders. As an introduction to the topic, the analysis begins with a brief summary of a visit to a counselor specializing in the treatment of eating disorders. This is followed by the analysis of three separate cases, each involving a patient manifesting a different type of eating disorder of weight management problem. Each analysis begins with a brief summary of the case and the client’s presenting symptoms. Drawing on recent psychological, dietary, and medical literature, the eating disorder presented is identified and discusses. The second part of each analysis presents a suggested treatment plan and rationale for the patient. 21 pages, 29 footnotes, 14 bibliographic references.

12504. THE ETHICS OF HEALTH CARE DISTRIBUTION. Presents an analysis and assessment of the moral issues surrounding the distribution of health care in the United States from the perspective of the early 21st century. The analysis is structured as hypothetical testimony from an expert in health policy ethics presented at public hearings which aim to reach a broad consensus on the issue of universal health care. The paper argues that access to health care is a right, not a privilege, and as such, ethics imperatives require the development of a viable national health care system which provides equal access to health care for all Americans. 10 pages, 43 footnotes, 27 bibliographic references.

12503. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND THE RIGHT’ TO HEALTH CARE. Takes a case analysis approach to considering the ethical and legal implications of the right’ to health care in contemporary America. The implications (for individuals, health care providers, the society) are considered within the framework of a hypothetical new national health insurance system and the situation facing two hypothetical patients who are being denied treatment based either on their presumed responsibility’ for their illness and/or their inability to pay for care. 8 pages, 11 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.

12447. EVALUATION AND CRITIQUE OF THREE EXERCISE CLASSES. This paper evaluates and critiques three different exercise classes (one high-impact aerobics, one low-impact water aerobics, one special population dance aerobics). each class is analyzed in terms of class organization, safety, music, instructor, and facility. Includes a summary analysis of feedback to instructors. 17 pages, 15 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.

12446. MAXIMIZING YOUR BODY POTENTIAL. Presents the results of a project aimed at maximizing body potential. The project entailed assessing current physical fitness, developing a personalized exercise program, assessing eating behavior, identifying problems in diet, and developing tactics for behavior modification for two people, one middle-aged female and one middle-aged male. 15 pages, 12 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.

12285. THE PHYSIOLOGICAL BASIS OF AMNESIA. Reviews recent research (experimental and case investigations) on the physiological basis, anatomical correlates, and behaviors associated with non-psychogenic amnesia. Defines anterograde versus retrograde amnesia, discussing their relationship and their differences. Traces recent trends and significant findings in 24 recent neuropsychological research studies. 11 pages, 42 footnotes, 28 bibliographic references.

12241. ETHICAL ISSUES IN PHYSICIAN-ASSISTED DYING. This essay argues that while it is possible to justifiably make moral judgments about the moral rightness or wrongness of the acts performed by physicians who illegally engage in either voluntary active euthanasia or assisted suicide, such judgments must be made on a case-by-case basis and are fundamentally influenced both by the autonomy, physical health and wishes of the patient as well as by the underlying motivations and specific actions of the physician. 5 pages, 10 footnotes, 2 bibliographic references.

12242. DISTRIBUTING THE BENEFITS AND BURDENS OF MEDICAL RESEARCH. The essay argues that the benefits (e.g., information, drugs, professional care) and the burdens (e.g., being a research subject, being subject to the requirements and coverage limitations entailed within managed care programs and HMO’s) of taxpayer-funded medical research in the United States should be distributed primarily in accordance with egalitarian accounts of justice which place emphasis on equal access to the goods in life that every rational person values. 5p 6 footnotes, 2 bibliographic references.

12241. ETHICAL ISSUES IN PHYSICIAN-ASSISTED DYING. This essay argues that while it is possible to justifiably make moral judgments about the moral rightness or wrongness of the acts performed by physicians who illegally engage in either voluntary active euthanasia or assisted suicide, such judgments must be made on a case-by-case basis and are fundamentally influenced both by the autonomy, physical health and wishes of the patient as well as by the underlying motivations and specific actions of the physicians. 5 pages, 10 footnotes, 2 bibliographic references.

12240. ALCOHOLIC FAMILIES: DOES HEREDITY PLAY A ROLE? Reviews the literature on the hereditary etiology of alcoholism. Concludes that the evidence provided by twin and adoption studies, as well as more recent evidence culled from genetic research, makes a strong case that heredity plays and important role in an individual’s propensity toward alcohol abuse and addiction. 6 pages, 12 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references.

12,239. DUAL RELATIONSHIPS IN PSYCHOLOGY. This paper explores the ethical and legal issues surrounding dual relationships in psychotherapy. Following a brief description of the APA’s position on dual relationships, the analysis examines the ethical and legal issues inherent within three categories of dual relationships: 1) sexual dual relationships between therapists and clients; 2)non-erotic (e.g. social, business) dual relationships between therapists and clients; and 3) dual relationships in psychology supervision and training. The concluding Section summarizes the main legal and ethical problems in dual relationships and makes recommendations for addressing these problems. 10 pages, 26 footnotes, 11 bibliographic references.

12238. DR. KEVORKIAN & THE ETHICS OF ASSISTED SUICIDE. Examines the religious and social issues of assisted suicide, focusing on Jack Kevorkian. Legal, moral, and professional ethics of helping suicide are discussed. 6 pages, 7 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.

12237 MEDICARE: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE. This paper provides a review and assessment of Medicare. The analysis reviews the history and intent of the Medicare legislation; examines its impact in terms of beneficiaries, health care providers and the health care system in general; considers the extent to which it has fulfilled its original purpose; analyzes the unintended consequences of the legislation; assesses its problems and their impact on particular interest groups; and considers likely steps toward reform and further legislation. 23 pages, 69 footnotes, 34 bibliographic references.

12236. MORAL REQUIREMENTS FOR AUTONOMY AND THE CASE OF BARNEY CLARK AND THE ARTIFICIAL HEART. Are the more requirements of respecting the autonomy of all persons universally applicable in all cultures, or are they restricted to the culture(s) in which they heave been explicitly adopted? Through an analysis of a medical ethics case concerning Barney Clark, the first patient to have an artificial heart transplanted “and live to tell about it,” this paper argues that these moral requirements are universally applicable. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 2 bibliographic references.

12203. THE BLACK DEATH. A description and short history of the bubonic plague epidemic of 1347-1351. The disease, mortality rates, and social and economic effects of the epidemic are reviewed. 10 pages, 22 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.

12159. OSHA REGULATIONS ON WORKER ILLNESS & INJURY PREVENTION: A CASE ANALYSIS OF THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY. This paper presents an overview and analysis of current and proposed OSHA standards and guidelines on employee illness and injury prevention, with specific attention to its application in the hospitality (hotel and restaurant) industry. Following a brief overview of OSHA and its legal authority over worker safety and illness/injury prevention, the analysis examines the basic requirements of an employee illness and injury prevention program within the hospitality industry. In addition to examining the current requirements related to hazardous materials, worker safety issues, bloodborne pathogens, and other issues, the investigation also assesses the implications for the hospitality industry related to proposed standards on indoor air quality, ergonomics, and workplace violence. 10 pages, 34 footnotes, 21 bibliographic references.

12127. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY. 11 pages, 36 footnotes, 22 bibliographic references. SEE Section 7A – U.S. Economy.

12059 HUMAN IMMUNITY AND NUTRITION. Through a qualitative review of the current literature on human immunity and nutrition, this investigation makes the case that good nutrition and a healthy diet strengthen the immune system. Considers five major themes: 1) the general relationship between nutrition, diet and the human immune system function; 2) nutrition and infection; 3) nutrition and immune function in the elderly; 4) nutrition in cancer prevention and treatment; and 5) nutrition in the modulation of the immune response in HIV and AIDS. A 6-page, 42-item annotated bibliography follows the text. 33 pages, 153 footnotes, 42 bibliographic references.

12058. THE ORGANIC BASIS OF MISIDENTIFICATION SYNDROMES: REDUPLICATIVE PARAMNESIA AND CAPGRAS SYNDROME. 12 pages, 53 footnotes, 23 bibliographic references. SEE Section 20B – Personality and Psychotherapy.

12057. ASBESTOS: MEDICAL, LEGAL & REGULATORY ASPECTS. 16 pages, 48 footnotes, 20 bibliographic references. SEE Section 23C – Environmental Science.

12056. RATING A COMPANY’S HEALTHCARE PACKAGE. Provides a thorough analysis of an institution’s (private university/medical center) employee health care package, considering both employer and employee needs. Points out the shortcomings of the plan and makes recommendations for modifications. 18 pages, 24 footnotes, 24 bibliographic references.

12055. DESIGNING A WELLNESS PROGRAM FOR A 500-EMPLOYEE CORPORATION. Designs an employee health promotion – or “wellness” program – for a hypothetical company with 500 employees, two-thirds of whom are classified as blue collar. The paper begins with an “overture to management” which presents the basic rationale and argument in favor of implementing a wellness program as well as a general overview of sample components of typical programs. The analysis then proceeds step-by-step through the planning, design, and implementation stages of the program. 13 pages, 45 footnotes, 28 bibliographic references.

12054. THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF VEGETARIANISM IN TERMS OF HEALTH. Defines different types of begetarians and gives various reasons why people turn to the diet. Covers advantages (less fat, fewer calories, more fiber) and disadvantages (protein and vitamin deficiencies). Argues that vegetarianism is good for one’s health as long as precautions are taken to make sure the body receives an adequate amount of nutrients. 9 pages, 34 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.

12053. A PERSONAL PERSPECTIVE ON HEALING AND THE HEALER. 10 pages, 27 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references. SEE Section 20B – Personality and Psychotherapy.

11979. TOBACCO COMPANIES AND THE ETHICS OF MANUFACTURED ADDICTION. 10 pages, 29 footnotes, 15 bibliographic references. SEE Section 5A – Managerial Science.

11894. MITOCHONDRIAL DNA AS A GENETIC MARKER. 5 pages, 16 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references. SEE Section 23B — Biology.

11893. DROPPING DENTAL AMALGAM: TIME FOR A NEW ERA IN RESTORATIVE DENTISTRY. Through an analysis of the case against amalgam and the case in favor of amalgam’s alternatives, this paper demonstrates that amalgam should and will be eliminated from dental practice both because of the health and environmental problems associated with it and because of the existence of superior alternative filling materials which better fit the new paradigm of preventative, “total oral health” dentistry. 18 pages, 59 footnotes, 22 bibliographic references.

11858. EVALUATION OF POSTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT INJURY. 10 pages, 24 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references. SEE Section 8D — Physical Education, Therapy, and Sports.

11725. ANOREXIA NERVOSA. See Section 20E. 5 pages, 23 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.

11718. ANTIBODIES TO CYTOKINES: A NEW THERAPEUTIC STRATEGY FOR THE TREATMENT OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS. Knowledgeable discussion of the use of cytokines (hormone-like proteins that act as communicators between cells) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Discusses and explains immunologic and auto immune responses in general and provides a clinical discussion of rheumatoid arthritis. Examines new therapeutic treatment directions, including cytokine and antibody therapy. Extensive medical terminology made understandable for the scientifically astute layman. 7 pages, 21 footnotes, 11 bibliographic references.

11712. TREATMENT OF MAJOR DEPRESSION. See Section 20E. 7 pages, 19 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.

11623. THE ETHICS OF EUTHANASIA. See Section 18D. 13 pages, 41 footnotes, 2 bibliographic references.

11562. PARKINSON’S DISEASE. This paper provides a brief summary and overview of Parkinson’s disease, considering its clinical profile, epidemiology, etiology, risk factors and treatment strategies. 5 pages, 15 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.

11548. CHILDREN PRENATALLY EXPOSED TO DRUGS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EARLY CHILDHOOD CLASSROOM. See Section 8A. 15 pages, 41 footnotes, 22 bibliographic references.

11444. WOMEN AND AIDS IN THAILAND. Following a brief overview of the epidemiology of AIDS in Thailand, including estimates of current prevalence and directions of disease expansion, the analysis turns to a specific examination of Thai women and AIDS and/or at high risk for contracting AIDS. The role of cultural, economic and social factors are considered. Government efforts at prevention and women’s responses are considered. Makes recommendations on policy changes. 15 pages, 41 footnotes, 17 bibliographic references.

11438. SHELLFISH AND DISEASE. An overview of diseases in humans which can be traced to the consumption or handling of shellfish. Focuses on shellfish-related diseases commonly found in North America. Reviews the major diseases, causal factors, and examines strategies and steps for disease prevention. 6 pages, 15 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.

11436. WOMEN AND CANCER: BREAST CANCER CHALLENGES & CONTROVERSIES. Profiles the incidence, mortality and survival rates for women diagnosed with breast cancer. Racially and economically-based differences in breast cancer survival and incidence rates are discussed. Risk factors, including heredity, childbearing, oral contraceptive use, environmental hazards and dietary factors are discussed. Conclusion looks at the controversy surrounding the NCI’s recommendations on mammography. 10 pages, 28 footnotes, 16 bibliographic references.

11385. A CASE OF AIDS DISCRIMINATION: EMPLOYER LIABILITY FOR REDUCTION OF HEALTH BENEFITS. See Section 6A. 5 pages, 5 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.

11356. AIDS AND AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BY MARTHA AINSWORTH AND MEAD OVER. See Section 25 bibliographic references. 7 pages, 9 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference.

11312. SPERM – OOCYTE INTERACTION See Section 23 bibliographic references. 11 pages, 30 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference.

11288. PIAGET’S THEORY OF DEVELOPMENT AND THE CHRONICALLY ILL CHILD See Section 20 footnotes, 5 pages, 14 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.

11280. PSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONING AND AGING See Section 20F. 12 pages + 3 pages of interviews, 45 footnotes, 2 bibliographic references.

11232. CHILDREN’S LITERATURE AND ITS USEFULNESS IN PREPARING CHILDREN FOR HOSPITALIZATION OR PHYSICIAN’S VISITS See Section 8 bibliographic references. 7 pages, 15 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference.

11210. COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL APPROACHES TO THE TREATMENT OF ALCOHOLISM See Section 20 bibliographic references. 10 pages, 30 footnotes, 22 bibliographic references.

11209. CRITIQUE OF AN ARTICLE IN NURSING Criticizes article by Ahijevych and Bernard (1994) that states that lack of information concerning health behaviors on part of African American women leads to poor care for this group. 7 pages, 5 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.

11206. BREAKTHROUGH IN COLON CANCER RESEARCH Links genetic defects to colon cancer and describes the results of recent research that strongly supports a genetic basis for this particular form of cancer. 6 pages, 3 bibliographic references.

11165. MODEL RESEARCH DESIGN ANALYZING HEALTH HAZARDS FOR AMERICAN TRAVELLERS IN KENYA, INDIA, AND MEXICO Presents review of literature concerning health hazards for American travellers in developing countries. Proposes three-part survey design, methods of statistical analysis, and anticipated outcome. 13 pages, 33 footnotes, 20 bibliographic references.

11105. “SPLIT BRAIN” PATIENTS Considers major issues and controversies in the fields of neurology and psychology involving human split brain operations, including practical aspects on human cerebral functioning with severed hemispheres, the respective functions of the right and left hemispheres, the psychiatric consequences, and the controversy concerning possible unifying structures within the human split brain. 13 pages, 22 footnotes, 14 bibliographic references.

11093. BRAIN INJURY AND PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS This paper provides an overview of the relationship between traumatic brain injury and neuropsychiatric disorders. The etiology, scope and magnitude of the correlation between brain injury and personality disorders, psychosis, dementia, delusions, schizophrenia, behavioral disorders, affective disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder are discussed and analyzed. 11 pages, 32 footnotes, 14 bibliographic references.

10678. THE DEVELOPMENT AND HISTORY OF U.S. HEALTH CARE DELIVERY SYSTEMS. Considers the underlying philosophy of the health care delivery system in the U.S., the history and evaluation of various delivery systems, recent trends in the development of new delivery systems (e.g. HMOs, PPOs, integrated managed care, etc.), and likely future configurations for U.S. health care delivery with a focus on managed care and managed competition. 12 pages, 33 footnotes, 24 bibliographic references.

10591. ANALYSIS OF THE HEALTH INSURANCE INDUSTRY. Analysis of the health care options available to the consumer and the relative economic costs of these options. 6 pages, 16 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.

10560. AIDS DEMENTIA. A review of literature focusing on one of the most common CNS manifestations of HIV infection- AIDS associated dementia. Discusses the relative incidence, suspected causal mechanisms, main symptoms, and prospective treatment protocols for persons manifesting AIDS associated dementia. 5 pages, 9 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.

10540. INSURANCE COSTS, COLLECTIVE BARGAINING, AND EMPLOYERS See Section 12. 6 pages, 14 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.

10477. CALIFORNIA BALLOT PROPOSITION 161: EXAMINES THE NOVEMBER, 1992 CALIFORNIA REFERENDUM ON PHYSICIAN ASSISTED DEATH. See Section 19 bibliographic references. 13 pages, 15 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.

10414. NICOTINE Presents the history, uses, effects, pharmacology, negative health effects, addictive aspects, and methods of addiction treatment for the drug nicotine as obtained from tobacco products. 15 pages, 40 footnotes, 16 bibliographic references.

10359. SMOKING IN THE WORKPLACE. 5 pages, 12 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references. SEE Section 22D.

10357. SOCIAL CONTROVERSIES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF LIFE-SUSTAINING/PROLONGING MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIES. This paper looks at controversies in the application of medical technical systems as a whole, and in particular their application in efforts to extend, prolong and sustain life which, lacking such technical systems, would be unsustainable. Following an overview of the impact of technology on medicine in general, this paper examines social controversies in medical technologies at two ends of the life continuum — the application of medical technology to permit and/or sustain life for newborns and the application of technology to prolong/sustain life for the elderly and the terminally ill. Major issues in the controversy such as quality of life versus quantity of life, patient autonomy, cost-benefits ratios of treatment, and the right to die are considered from the perspective of medical ethicists, scientists, the courts, and the patients or objects of the technology. Problems in the application of the technologies are identified and recommendations for reform of the technical systems considered. 13 pages, 32 footnotes, 19 bibliographic references.

10304. MEDICARE PHYSICIAN PAYMENT REFORM: THE RESOURCE BASED RELATIVE VALUE SCALE. This paper examines Medicare physician payment reform. Following a brief overview of historical Medicare methods for reimbursing physicians,we will consider the rationalization for reform and review the steps taken by Congress and physician groups to effect the reform. The central components of the new system, including the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS), the geographical adjustment, the limitations on balanced billing, and the volume performance standard are explained and analyzed. Advantages and disadvantages to the new system are considered. Finally, the impact of the new system on physicans, hospitals and patients is considered. 16 pages, 32 footnotes, 16 bibliographic references.

10298. NICOTINE AND SELF REPORTED SIDE EFFECTS: STUDY DESIGN. Introduces and presents the rationale, purpose, objectives and method of a proposed study investigating self-reported side effects (both positive and negative) of nicotine use as experienced by smokers. A background review of literature considers the recent research on models of nicotine addiction and empirically confirmed neurological and performance side effects of smoking. 10 pages, 18 footnotes, 14 bibliographic references.

10278. A PROPOSAL FOR A NATIONAL UNIVERSAL HEALTH CARE SYSTEM IN THE U.S. Following an overview of some of the reasons behind this renewed interest in national health insurance — the rationale and need for reform — this analysis briefly considers the relative merits and components of several major proposals now being discussed and makes recommendations for the implementation of a comprehensive reform system. 12 pages, 30 footnotes, 26 bibliographic references.

10277. MEDICAL EXAMINATION OF ALIENS. An analysis of a proposed new rule published in the January 22, 1991 issue of the Federal Register. The rule, proposed by the Public Health Service’s Centers for Disease Control, alters the existing list of “dangerous, contagious diseases” which is used to exclude aliens (both immigrants and non-immigrants) from entry into the U.S. The new rule would eliminate HIV infection, several sexually transmitted diseases and leprosy from the list, leaving only tuberculosis. The reason behind the proposed changes, the political, medical, and economic effects of the new rule, and possible alternatives and improvements to the rule are considered. The concluding analysis recommends implementation of the new rule, with only minor modifications calling for a program of health education specifically focused on AIDS prevention. 20 pages, 46 footnotes, 2 bibliographic references.

10276. OSTEOPOROSIS. An overview of the significance, characteristics, causes, risk factors, prevention and treatment of this disease involving bone loss and associated fractures. 6 pages, 10 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.

10206. PHYSICAL EXERCISE: A USEFUL STRESS INTERVENTION. Investigates the use of physical exercise as a stress management technique. Provides the theoretical basis for its use and presents a model for an exercise-based stress intervention program. 11 pages, 36f 2 bibliographic references.

10178. THE TREATMENT OF WOMEN BY THE MENTAL HEALTH FIELD. 25 pages, 33 footnotes, 13 bibliographic references. SEE Section 20E.

10177. ENCOUNTER GROUPS. 20 pages, 36 footnotes, 11 bibliographic references. See Section 2 bibliographic references.

10176. THE USE OF EPIDURAL CATHETERS IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC CANCER PAIN. Discusses use of epidural catheters in treatment of cancer pain in the chronically ill, side effects of catheters, and alternative approaches. 10 pages, 23 footnotes, 2 bibliographic references.

10087. PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF AIDS. An overview of the psychological effects of AIDS. Antecedents, including the disease itself, anticipation of disease outcome, and the predisposing behavioral/social factors are discussed and analyzed. The scope of the problem is considered, with a focus on the two most prevalent psychological effects — adjustment reaction (anxiety) and major depression with complicating suicidal ideation. 5 pages, 20 footnotes, 15 bibliographic references.

10086. EXPERIMENT DRUG TREATMENTS FOR AIDS. The research and testing of new drugs for the treatment and prevention of AIDS is studied. Various theories of transmission and blocking of the AIDS virus are related to different drug development plans. 10 pages, 28 footnotes, 15 bibliographic references.

10078. DEFOE’S JOURNAL OF THE PLAGUE YEAR. 7 pages, 19 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references. SEE Section 10E.

09997. DEATH & DYING: BIOLOGICAL, MEDICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS. Presents a brief overview of the current knowledge on death and dying from its biological, medical and psychological aspects. 5 pages, 12 footnotes, 17 bibliographic references.

09996. THE EFFECT OF THE GASTROREFLUX ON THE LARYNGEAL MECHANISM. Identifies and explores the effect of GER on the laryngeal mechanism. Includes an overview of gastro-reflux, including its definition, clinical features, diagnosis, causes, natural history, and treatment. 15 pages, 29 footnotes, 18 bibliographic references.

09993. CRACK BABIES: A SOCIAL SERVICES CATASTROPHE. 20 pages, 74 footnotes, 37 bibliographic references. SEE Section 22E.

09955. MANAGING AIDS PRISONERS. Prison policies in the handling of AIDS patients and HIV-positive inmates are examined. Numbers of inmates, various stae programs and policies, and myths about the spread of AIDS are reviewed, and policy suggestions made. 12 pages, 26 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.

09840. DEVELOPING PROCEDURES FOR STRESS REDUCTION IN A STRESSED TEACHER POPULATION. Systematically builds a model of stress reduction for a group of community college teachers exhibiting the symptoms of job-related stress. Discusses cognitive-behavioral, communications, and exervise-therapy strategies to reduce the symptoms of exhaustion, depersonalization and low self-esteem. 8 pages, 28 footnotes, 18 bibliographic references.

09838. THE OSTEOPATHIC PHYSICIAN: CONTRIBUTIONS TO MODERN MEDICINE. A position paper which favorably cmopares osteopathic physicians (DOs) with M.D.s. Articulates the principles of osteopathy, describes the parameters of osteopathic training and education, and details the special role of DOs in the contemporary health care system. 5 pages, 14 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.

09827. THE AMERICAN DISEASE: ORIGINS OF NARCOTIC CONTROL BY DAVID F. MUSTO. 10 pages, 12 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference. SEE Section 22D.

09797. ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE. An examination of the recent research into causes and cures for Alzheimer’s; theories of neurochemical cause, symptoms, diagnostic techniques, and research into treatment are considered. 10 pages, 14 footnotes, 11 bibliographic references.

09782. SEIZURES IN INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD: INTERVENTION PROCEDURES. Describes testing, identification, drug treatment and effects on language development of neonatal and early childhood seizures. 8 pages, 26 footnotes, 19 bibliographic references.

09768. AUTOGENIC TRAINING. An overview of the principles, theories, objectives and applications of this self-help, self-healing practice. Considers AT within the general rubric of holistic medicine and self-care. Presents a training model for teaching AT to a group of 3-5 people over a period of 4 weeks. 8 pages, 9 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.

09651. CURANDERISMO: THE PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OF MEXICAN FOLK HEALING. 10 pages, 40 footnotes, 11 bibliographic references.

09640. ATHLETES AND STEROIDS. 10 pages, 25 footnotes, 22 bibliographic references. SEE Section 8D.

09610. HEALING, MEDICINE AND RITUAL AMONG THE BALINESE OF INDONESIA. 10 pages, 14 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references. SEE Section 25E.

09577. A POLITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE PROSPECTIVE FOR A NATIONAL HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAM IN THE UNITED STATES. 21 pages, 49 footnotes, 20 bibliographic references. SEE Section 19 bibliographic references.

09518. ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN OF HEALTH CARE DELIVERY SYSTEMS. Explores the various health issues involved in the architectural design of health care delivery systems, and relates these issues to the larger problems of environmental design and workplace health. 10 pages, 12 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.

09399. PREMATURITY AND PROBLEMS OF ATTACHMENT. Review of the literature which suggests that the infant-maternal attachment paradigm is more frequently disturbed in mother-premature infant relations than in mother-fullterm infant relations. 10 pages, 38 footnotes, 26 bibliographic references.

09365. MIGRAINE: ETIOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS. In depth examination of causes and predispositions (physiological, genetic, psychological) of migraine headaches. Includes a discussion of familial, hormonal, food and chemical “triggers” and personality factors involved in migraine. Recommends that stress-reducing and stress-coping strategies be utilized in migraine treatment and prevention therapies. 11 pages, 40 footnotes, 26 bibliographic references.

09364. WHAT WILL GEORGE BUSH DO ABOUT THE HEALTH CARE CRISIS? Looks at Bush’s record in the Reagan Administration as well as his campaign rhetoric to attempt to discern what, if anything, Bush will do about the health care crisis.

09362. IN SUPPORT OF EUTHANASIA. 10 pages, 14 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references. SEE Section 22D.

09361. GRIEF COUNSELING AND PSYCHOSOCIAL SUPPORT FOR THE FAMILIES AND FRIENDS OF AIDS PATIENTS. Considers the psychosocial problems presented by AIDS from the perspective of the informal (family, friends, lovers) caretaker and then assesses how the psychiatric nurse can be of assistance. 11 pages, 28 footnotes, 22 bibliographic references.

09360. SEX EDUCATION: A MATTER OF PUBLIC HEALTH. 6 pages, 19 footnotes, 16 bibliographic references. SEE Section 22D.

09359. LONG TERM MEDICAL EFFECTS OF MARIJUANA ABUSE. Medical (cardiovascular, pulmonary, endocrine, reproductive, psychiatric and neurophysiological) effects of the drug are explored. This is followed by an analysis of the synergistic effects of marijuana and cocaine abuse. The investigation concludes with an assessment of the long term national effects of such abuse. 12 pages, 29 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references.

09358. AIDS IN UGANDA. Traces the epidemiology of AIDS in Uganda. Examines the government-sponsored AIDS prevention program now in place in Uganda and considers social, political, economic and cultural barriers to the prevention of AIDS. 11 pages, 30 footnotes, 16 bibliographic references.

09278. MARKETING WEIGHT LOSS PROGRAMS. 25 pages, 58 footnotes, 45 bibliographic references. SEE Section 5 bibliographic references.

09270. VISUAL HEALTH HAZARDS AMONG VDT WORKERS. A comprehensive review of the literature concerning visual hazards to workers resulting from video display terminal work. Radiation exposure, ergonomics (work environment and worker comfort) and job stress factors are considered. Includes a review of the literature from government, private study, medical and business sources. 21 pages, 50 footnotes, 34 bibliographic references.

09250. LONG-TERM MEDICAL EFFECTS OF COCAINE ABUSE. Medical (cardio-vascular, pulmonary, endocrine, reproductive, psychiatric, and neur-physiological) effects of the drug are explored. Particular attention is devoted to the medical effects of cocaine abuse in its new, powerful, “crack” or freebase form. The investigation concludes with an assessment of the long-term national effects of such abuse. 11 pages, 35 footnotes, 16 bibliographic references.

09190. DOCTORS SHOULD BE NOTIFIED IF THEIR PATIENTS HAVE AIDS. A philosophical essay arguing that there should be a mandatory reporting system which will notify primary caregivers if their patients are infected with the AIDS virus. Such a system preserves physician rights, protects labworkers, protects the patient’s contacts, and ultimately leads to better health care for the patient. 5 pages, 12 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references.

09189. NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND EATING DISORDERS: THE SPECIAL PROBLEMS OF WOMEN. A scientific examination of women’s proclivity toward obesity and other eating disorders. Considers prevalence in the population, theories of obesity, biological differences between men and women, and consequences of eating disorders. 10 pages, 22 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.

09188. MEDICARE’S DIAGNOSIS RELATED GROUPS (DRGS) AND PAYMENTS TO HOSPITALS. A comprehensive investigation exploring the economic, ethical and medical implications of the DRG system from a legal perspective. Following a general review of the rationale underlying the DRG system, considers the inherent problems in the system and the basis and precedents for litigation. Particular attention is devoted to the special vulnerability of and potential defenses for the elderly. 40 pages, 131 footnotes, 79 bibliographic references.

09187. RISK FACTORS IN MATERNAL SMOKING. A review and analysis of two epidemiological studies investigating the causal relationship between maternal smoking and congenital defects in offspring and risk of perinatal death. Support for causal significance is found in one of the studies and refuted in the other. 3 pages, 2 bibliographic references.

09186. SOCIAL FACTORS IN MENTAL DISORDERS. 7 pages, 20 footnotes, 11 bibliographic references. SEE Section 22D.

09185. EUTHANASIA IS WRONG. Takes a firm position against the practice of euthanasia, contending that mercy killing is antithetical to the teachings of our Judaeo-Christian heritage. Argues that euthanasia would diminish the quality of medical care and ultimately undermine the patient’s right to self-determination. 5 pages, 6 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.

09184. IN FAVOR OF EUTHANASIA. Makes a case for the legalization of mercy killing, under the condition that clear and narrow guidelines for the practice be established. 3 pages, l footnote, l bibliographic reference.

08956. BULIMIA: OPTIMAL TREATMENT MODALITIES. The investigation compares and contrasts the cognitive-behavioral approach with the group therapy approach in the treatment of this eating disorder. Rationale, procedures, and evidence supporting each approach is considered. Concludes that the cognitive-behavioral approach is most effective. 10 pages, 22 footnotes, 13 bibliographic references.

08955. STRESS AND OVEREATING. The paper investigates stress’s role in the causes of overeating, in the biological and psychological components of obesity itself, and its role in attempts to arrive at a solution to the problem of overeating and obesity. 10 pages, 33 footnotes, 11 bibliographic references.

08954. THE ETHICS OF EUTHANASIA. 6 pages, 4 footnotes, 2 bibliographic references. SEE Section 18D.

08919. SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES OF DRUG USE AMONG COLLEGE ATHLETES. 15 pages, 16 footnotes, 18 bibliographic references. SEE Sections 8D and 22D.

08901.DRUG MAINTENANCE PROGRAMS. 5 pages, 6 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references. SEE Section 22D.

08900. ARTIFICIAL HEART EXPERIMENTATION. 40 pages, 76 footnotes, 57 bibliographic references. SEE Section 6A.

08881. MARKETING IN THE HOME HEALTH CARE INDUSTRY. 15 pages, 29 footnotes, 25 bibliographic references. SEE Section 5 bibliographic references.

08867. DRUG TESTING OF EMPLOYEES. 5 pages, bibliographic reference. SEE Section 22D.

08695.EPILEPSY AS A LEARNING DISABILITY. Considers the history, causes, characteristics, and treatment of epilepsy. Special attention is devoted to a discussion of motor difficulties resulting from epilepsy. Notes special teaching considerations for the education of epileptic children. 10 pages, 24 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.

08692. SELF-HEALING: HEADACHES. Describes the rationale, reviews the literature, and sets up a program for using a self-healing technique combining distraction and visualization for the treatment of tension and migraine headaches. 6 pages, 15. 11 bibliographic references.

08691. STRESS IN THE WORKPLACE. Based on a review of current literature in the field, this essay presents a brief overview of the topic of stress in the work environment. Defines “stress” and discusses a variety of theories on the management of stress. 6 pages, 13 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.

08684. AN ANALYSIS OF THE PUBLIC SECTOR’S RESPONSE TO THE PSYCHO-SOCIAL NEEDS OF AIDS PATIENTS. Examines the psychological and social needs of AIDS patients and their caregivers as well as the State and medical community responses to those needs. Concludes with a class analysis of the power hierarchy involved in AIDS care. 13 pages, 28 footnotes, 26.

08678. MANDATORY AIDS TESTING — AN ETHICAL ISSUE. An examination of the issues involved in whether or not a universal, mandatory AIDS testing program should be implemented in the U.S. Concludes that mandatory AIDS testing is morally wrong and a violation of rights to privacy. 7 pages, 14 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.

08669. SEX EDUCATION: NOT JUST THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE FAMILY. 8 pages, 20 footnotes, 18 bibliographic references. SEE Section 22 bibliographic references.

08666. MORAL ISSUES IN ALTERNATIVE BIRTH METHODS. 10 pages, 17 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references. SEE Section 18D.

08663. THE COMMON COLD. Gives a clinical overview of the common cold, including clinical manifestations and mechanisms, as well as the antecedents, prevalence, distribution,and treatments for the common cold. Particular attention is given to the strong evidence of the link between the manifestations of cold symptoms and depressed immune function. 10 pages, 26 footnotes, 15 bibliographic references.

08630. THE VIETNAM VETERAN AND POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER. 7 pages, 5 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references. SEE Section 10C.

08623. MPR SELF-TRAINING PAPER. Personal report on the difficulties and surprises which occurred in a program of self-taught Modified Progressive Relaxation technique. Includes a report on both objective and subjective experiences. 8 pages, bibliographic reference.

08606. TREATMENT AND MEDIATION THERAPY FOR DIABETIC RETINOPATHY. Traces the causes, treatments and possible cures for diabetic retinopathy. A substantial portion of the research concentrates on the control and treatment of diabetes — the underlying cause of retinopathy. 13 pages, 21 footnotes, 17 bibliographic references.

08576. NEUROPHYSIOLOGIC EFFECTS OF DRUGS AND ABUSE. Surveys the neurophysiologic effects (both desired and adverse) of commonly abused licit and illicit street drugs. Also examined is each drug’s overdoes and withdrawal mechanisms. Particular attention is devoted to the effects of PCP, MDA, synthetic heroin,and synthetic cocaine of crack.

08536. TREATMENT AND MEDIATION THERAPY FOR RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. Examines the physiological manifestations, prognosis, possible treatments, and related limitations involved in the opthamalogical disorder of retinitis pigmentosa. 11 pages, 17 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference.

08473. ENTREPRENEURIAL STRESS. 10 pages, 14 footnotes, 11 bibliographic references. SEE Section 5A.

08409. OVERCOMING ANXIETY THROUGH DEEP BREATHING. 5 pages, 5 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references. SEE SECTION 20G.

08392. ALCOHOLISM: CAUSES AND EFFECTS. Presents a concise overview of the causes and effects of alcoholism. Discusses the two main causation theories of heredity and environment as well as effects spanning a broad range of categories, including physical, psychological, neuropsychiatric, social, economic, and family-related. 14 pages, 25 footnotes, 16 bibliographic references.

08391. BENZENE: HEALTH RISKS AND CONTROLS FOR OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE. Establishes the criteria (scientific, social and economic) by which the risks of benzene exposure should be assessed. Includes a review of the literature, a review of court cases challenging existing or proposed standards, and a proposed workplace exposure standard and program implementation system. 19 pages, 54 footnotes, 47 bibliographic references.

08390. NURSING’S RESPONSE TO PATIENT LONELINESS. Investigation of the clinical phenomenon of loneliness viewed from the perspective of Orem’s self-care model of nursing. The phenomenon of loneliness and the appropriate nursing response is illustrated within the biospychosocial nursing model of Dorthea Orem. 10 pages, 23 footnotes, 16 bibliographic references.

08291. ANTECEDENTS AND FACTORS OF TRANSMISSION IN AIDS AND ARC. An investigation of some of the antecedents for AIDS as well as factors of transmission of the disease into persons who were originally classified outside of the high risk group. 6 pages, 9 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference.

08290. NURSING THEORY/FAMILY THERAPY: A SYNTHESIS OF CONCEPTS. Provides a synthesis of the concepts from Martha Rogers’ conceptual model of nursing and from Virginia Satir’s theory of family therapy. As background to the study, an overview of nursing models in general, and Rogers’ model in particular is included. 10 pages, 22 footnotes, 13 bibliographic references.

08289. DRUG ABUSE AND TREATMENT MODALITIES IN GREAT BRITAIN. Drug abuse and drug treatment programs in Great Britain are overviewed, with particular attention devoted to heroin treatment programs. Medical uses of heroin, legal dispensation of heroin to addicts, and rates of recovery from addiction are assessed. 15 pages, 29 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.

08288. ALCOHOLISM AND AFFECTIVE DISORDERS. Following a brief overview of the nature and extent of problems related to or correlated with alcoholism, the parameters and variety of affective disorders associated with alcoholism will be explored. Etiology, antecedents, and recovery potentials are also discussed. 10 pages, 32 footnotes, 15 bibliographic references.

08258. THEORETICAL BASIS OF NURSING EDUCATION. Takes Martha Rogers’ approach in defining the theoretical basis of nursing education. Includes a brief review of the literature representing both theoretical and practical applications of Rogers work. 5 pages, 16 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references.

08166. SMOKING IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS. The arguments against allowing smoking in public buildings are examined and supported in this essay; the medical, legal and social case against smoking is presented, the federal, state and local laws are reviewed. 9 pages, 12 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.

08133. POLICY ANALYSIS AND THE SWINE FLU AFFAIR. Critical analysis of the public policy making process taken from an examination of The Epidemic That Never Was by Richard Neustadt and Harvey V. Fineberg. Discusses the policy process from the perspective of the six phases of initiation, estimation, selection, implementation, evaluation, and termination. 9 pages, 2 bibliographic references. Notes in text.

08127. ROGERS CONCEPTUAL NURSING MODEL. Critical internal and external analysis of Martha Rogers’ conceptual model of nursing. Analysis of the central components of resonancy, helicy, and complementary, as well as the underlying assumptions of the model. The external analysis is applied to practical nursing. 15 pages, 8 bibliographic references. Notes in text.

08064. SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN HOSPITALS. An overview of the problem of health professionals impaired by substance abuse. Considers the magnitude of the problem, the factors that lead to abuse and problems caused, how hospital staff should deal with the substance abuser. Includes statistical tables. 15 pages, 23 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.

08006. ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS AND HUMAN HEALTH. An examination of the physiological, physical, and psychological effects of the modern urban environment on man. Considers the factors of noise, crowding, and improper lighting. Includes conclusions. 6 pages, 8 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.

07366. FAD DIETS. Basic reasons why fad diets are seldom advisable; nutritionally poor or even harmful, almost never effective, and resulting in numerous unhealthy psychological effects. 4 pages, 2 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references.

07264.MEN WHO CONTROL WOMEN’S HEALTH BY SCULLY. Personal, feminist book review of this feminist study of human relations — or rather their lack — among OB/GYN practitioners. Scully’s book is recommended as mandatory reading for all women. 5 pages, 5 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference.

07221. HELPING THE CHRONIC PAIN PATIENT. Good practical guide for nurses on techniques for helping patients in chronic pain without drugs. Based on recent research in psychological and holistic techniques, covers how to use trigger points, therapeutic touching, relaxation and rhythmic breathing, guided visualization and symptom substitution as methods of pain relief. 9 pages, 6 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.

07219. NUTRITION DURING PREGNANCY AND LACTATION. Good survey of the nutritional requirements of motherhood. Doctors are now emphasizing adequate protein, sufficient calories, enough salt and vitamins and minerals; gives amounts of all major nutrients, vitamins and minerals required. 6 pages, 7 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references.

07218. FACTS ABOUT GENITAL HERPES. Good overview of what medical science knows about one of America’s most dreaded diseases. Statistics, the viruses, symptoms, transmission, complications; prevention is the only cure. 7 pages, 15 footnotes, 15 bibliographic references.

07098. HOW TO ACHIEVE AND MAINTAIN SEXUAL HEALTH (FROM A WOMAN’S POINT OF VIEW). 7 pages, 9 footnotes, 2 bibliographic references. SEE Section 24. women’s Studies.

07057. FETAL ALCOHOLIC SYNDROME. Comprehensive review of medical studies finding numerous types of damage to the fetus from any alcohol consumption at all by the pregnant mother. 9 pages, 17 bibliographic references. Notes in text.

07056. ENDORPHINS: THE BRAIN’S NATURAL OPIATE. Full review of the medical studies on endorphins, the types of peptides found in the brain which act as neurotransmitters and hormones, and are generally thought to be the body’s natural pain killer, 1000 times more effective than morphine. Includes evidence linking endorphins to the effectiveness of acupuncture, also notes the cautions of some researchers. 9 pages, 11 footnotes, 11 bibliographic references.

07054. NUTRITIONAL CONTRIBUTION OF MCDONALD’S TO THE AMERICAN DIET. Describes the fat, cholesterol, and artificial components of the hamburger giant’s offerings and finds them to be a major component of America’s desire to eat itself into a heart attack. 5 pages, 2 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference.

07024. THE EARLY HISTORY AND ECONOMICS OF TEA. 12 pages, 8 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references. SEE Section 7C. Developed Economies and World Trade.

06741. THE URBAN HEALTH SYSTEM. The health care delivery systems for our urban populations are reviewed and analyzed in this report; the history of health care systems in this country, the role of the government, and the design and operation of such systems are commented upon. Particular attention is given to the funding problems of health care systems. 14 pages, 2 footnotes, 2 bibliographic references.

06582. VITAMIN E: ITS FUNCTIONS AND FALLACIES. A good discussion of the facts and fallacies surrounding the use of Vitamin E as a dietary supplement; looks at the sources of Vitamin E, the functions in the human body, and the claims made for it; Vitamin E deficiency is seen as almost unknown. 7 pages, 8 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.

06321. MARKETING CHANNELS FOR HMO’S. 10 pages, 4 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references. SEE Section 5B, Advertising and Marketing.

06073. FOOD ADDITIVES. Detailed and objective study of what food additives are, how and why they are used. Covers FDA regulations, accidental contaminants, objective discussion of threats to health. 20 pages, 14 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.

06022. THE ALCOHOLIC WORKER. 22 pages, 24 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references. SEE Section 22D, Sociology, Contemporary Social Problems.

06013. OSHA. A detailed description of the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration and its California counterpart. A San Francisco general hospital is used as a case study in local application. Balanced but generally favorable toward the programs. 25 pages, 18 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.

05908. PREVENTATIVE HEALTH CARE AND SES. Reviews research findings of the relationship between socio-economic status and preventative behavior. Includes a discussion of social participation. 10 pages, 19 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference.

05831. THE PHYSIOLOGY OF SCUBA DIVING: EFFECTS AND PREVENTION OF BAROTRAUMA. 7 pages, 5 footnotes, 2 bibliographic references. SEE Section 8D, Education, Physical Education, Therapy and Sports.

05396. CHANGING ATTITUDES TOWARD DEATH. The author begins with a history of attitudes about death in Western culture and discusses present approaches, particularly those of Kubler Ross. Analyzes the effects of medical technology and ethics on the living and dying. 14 pages, 16 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.

05395. LINKED INFANTILE AGAMMA GLOBULINEMEIA. This paper decribes agamma globulinemeia in children, gives a quick history and case studies. It details various methods of increasing the life expectancy of afflicted children. 7 pages, 5 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.

05394. THE RESULTS OF CHANGING TO A NO SUGAR DIET. The paper points out that a totally sugar free diet would be impossible to attain but that the elimination of white sugar would be beneficial. 5 pages, 6 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.

05393. PSYCHODIETICS BY CHERASKIN AND RINGSDORF. This is a book review outlining a diet for curing and preventing senility. It includes calorie, vitamin and diet plan charts. 7 pages, bibliographic references.

05392. ACUPUNCTURE. This paper includes a history of acupuncture in China and its introduction. to the U.S. There is a critical discussion of when and how acupuncture works. 14 pages, 18 footnotes, 13 bibliographic references.

05386. GOOD SAMARITAN STATUTES. A history, with legal examples, of the need for law exempting doctors from civil liability suits for negligence in cases where emergency treatment is given outside a hospital. Contains an analysis of such laws. 8 pages, 7 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references.

05224. BRAIN DAMAGE IN MAN AND ANIMAL. The research in lesions and the relationship between missile wounds and brain damage is surveyed, with particular attention to the visual cortex and localized lesions in the optic cortex. Animal experinents with cortical ablations are used to demonstrate the difficulty of establishing connections between injury and behavioral consequences. 16 pages, 6 bibliographic references.

05216. MOTOROLA’S SAMARITAN HEALTH SERVICE. A good business case probem study, looking at the establishment of health care delivery systems and insurance programs within the Motorola corporation. The emergence of the Samaritan system in the Phoenix area plant is studied and disputes between company and hospital are reviewed. 10 pages, bibliographic references.

05174. HEALTH AND EDUCATION. Health instruction and physical education in our schools are discussed, and guidelines for emotional and social health are examined as well. 7 pages, 5 bibliographic references.

05011. THE RIGHT TO DIE. The ethical considerations involved in euthanasia, and the moral issue of whether a patient has the “right to die”, are considered in terms of consciousness and suicide in Dr. Milton Heifetz’s book. 5 pages, bibliographic reference.

04985. MALNUTRITION IN WEST AFRICA. The epidemic of starvation in West Africa, beginning with the Biafran Civil War in Nigeria and continuing up to the current trend toward desertification, is looked at. Problems of diet, climate, and economy in the area are discussed, and medical facilities criticized. 10 pages, 9 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.

04977. MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES IN SANTA CLARA COUNTY. 10 pages, 10 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references. SEE 20B; Psychology: Personality Theory and Psychotherapy.

04976. A TREATMENT PROGRAM FOR HIGH RISK ADOLESCENT PARENTS FOR THE PREVENTION OF CHILD ABUSE. This study opens with a brief discussion of the prevalence of child abuse, then uses research studies to show some of the common characteristics of child abusers: social isolation, stress, lack of mothering skills, and similar family histories. Looking at some current treatment programs aimed at preventing further child abuse, the paper proposes a hospital-based preventive treatment program, beginning with prenatal care and continuing with post-natal, in home care. 25 pages, 18 footnotes, 27 bibliographic references.

04962. BIOBHYTHMS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION. The applications of biorhytbm theory to the operation and management of business are considered. Problems of safety, jo bibliographic references. effectiveness and administrative skills are related to the three basic biorhytbmic cycles; intellectual, emotional and sensitive, and the construction of biorhythm charts is demonstrated. 21 pages, 17 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.

04957. MAN AND WOMAN, BOY AND GIRL BY JOHN AND ANKE EHRHARDT. A brief review of this study of gender identity and hermaphrodism, examing sexual dimorphism and fetus development as well as brain development and later child rearing. 5 pages, bibliographic reference.

04945. CHOLERA. Causes and symptoms of cholera are discussed, and the links to sanitation and cholera bacteria shown in this essay. The various methods of treatment, including intravenous fluids and antibiotics, are also looked at briefly. 4 pages, 4 bibliographic references.

04928. GOOD SAMARITAN STATUTES. A discussion of legal statutes exempting physicians from liability for negligence and malpractice suits incurred during the administration of emergency aid. Includes an analysis of the common law background of the concept and the existing statutes. 9 pages, 7 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references.

04879. CHINESE MEDICINE. The theory and practice of medicine in classical China are examined in this interesting and well-written paper. The development of medicine is seen through the writings of the I Ching, the Nan Ching and the guide to acupuncture, and Chinese medicine is compared to Western concepts of Gestalt and non-linear healing. A review of the major figures in Chinese classical medicine concludes the report. 13 pages, 20 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.

04866. THE MEDICARE PROGRAM. The development of the Medicare health insurance program is reviewed, from its inception as a national concept to its final passage in 1965. The operational and cost-control problems of the progrsm are also looked at, and various reforms of the system are proposed. 12 pages, 17 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.

04848. PAST DISCRIMINATION MEDICAL EDUCATION. 13 pages, 23 footnotes, 11 bibliographic references. SEE Category 4: Black Studies.

04817. ALCOHOLISM AMONG MEXICAN-AMERICAN MALES. A study of the social and cultural factors that predispose some Mexican-American males toward alcoholism. 5 pages, bibliographic reference.

04797. A PRESCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATIONAL CURRICULUM. This paper is a carefully presented proposal for a preschool health curriculum, with the emphasis on learning behavior patterns to last a lifetime. The preschool child is seen as forming chronic habits which develop into motivation factors in the adult. The problems of health services and preschool child disease are illustrated with statistical graphs and problems of health care delivery are analyzed in terms of funding, parental roles and other factors. The curriculun is presented in tabular form. 37 pages, 27 footnotes, 17 bibliographic references.

04761. ALTERNATIVE CHILDBIRTH IN THE HOSPITAL. Very thorough examination of the theory and practice of alternative, natural childbirth within the hospital; review of the literature, reasons for and against presence of fathers, nonmanaged birth; existing alternative birth centers; survey of practices at three hospital alternate birth centers; design of an ideal alternate birth center. 31 pages, 25 footnotes, 23 bibliographic references.

04757. THE NATURAL DEATH ACT. 6 pages, 5 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references. SEE Contemporary Social Problems.

04752. IS ELECTRO-SHOCK THERAPY ETHICAL? Discussion of the morality of shock therapy, focusing on definitions of morality and utilitarianism in treatment; all is firmly based on discussions in the literature; since the literature is dominated by proponents of shock, this may account for wishy-washy conclusion. 7 pages, 8 footnotes, bibliographic reference.

04726. REGIONAL HEALTH CARE PLANNING IN SWEDEN. Good technical study of the administration, organization and services of local health care facilities in Sweden; as usual, the only real problem is that doctors can’t be bothered to locate in rural areas. 10 pages, 12 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.

04637. HEREDITARY ASPECTS OF CANCER. Good, thorough study (in clinical language) of experiments and studies on the genetic causes of cancer; writer feels that the final interpretation will be that cancer is an interaction of hereditary, environmental and viral causes. 10 pages, 7 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.

04632. REDUCING MEDICATION ERRORS THROUGH COMPUTERIZATION. Very good, very thorough study of computers in hospitals, and specifically their effectiveness in reducing medication errors; reviews relevant literature, reports on experience in one hospital which saw some reduction, but not enough, in medication errors after installing computers; concludes personal care and supervision still necessary. 16 pages, 4 footnotes, 13 bibliographic references.

04577. THE A. M. A. OPPOSITION TO NATIONAL HEALTH INSURANCE. Good critical study of the American Medical Association’s opposition to decent public health care, with thorough comparison to developments in European countries; thoroughly and rightfully castigates the reactionary and money-grubbing policies of the doctor’s cartel, which is “very much like a medieval guild.” 11 pages, 8 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.

04503. ISSUES OF PRIVACY AND CONFIDENTIALITY IN THE MENTAL HEALTH PROCESS. 13 pages, 16 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references. SEE General Law.

04403. PAIN. Very good psychological and physiological study of what pain is, how it works, (both literally and generally); intensity, threshold, tolerance, insensitivity to pain and “phantom limb” pain are aiso covered. 13 pages, l5 footnotes, 2 bibliographic references.

04402. CARDIOVASCULAR NURSING. The problems of evaluation, treatment and education involved in the specialized field of cardiovascular nursing are examined in this paper. The text contains an introduction, to the field and the nurse’s job duties, a descriptive chapter on heart functions, and the cardiovascular system in health care, and a review of the nurse’s role. 15 pages, 9 bibliographic references. Includes table of content.

04400. A PHILOSOPHY OF AGING FOR GERIATRIC NURSING. Very good, sensitive discussion of the problems (and enjoyments!) of old age, and what the nurse should know in order to understand their concerns; extensive quotes from American Nursing Assoc.’s standards of care for geriatric nursing. 4 pages, 8 bibliographic references.

04396. SICKLE CELL ANEMIA. A report on the molecular characteristics and behavior of sickle hemoglobin, looking at the role of oxygen in the sickling process, and giving a good medical analysis of the problem. 7 pages, 8 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.

04393. THE ENDOCRINE GLANDS. The nature and functions of the endocrine glands as chemical regulators of body systems are examined in this study. Problems of hormone deficiency, goiter diabetes and estrogen production are discussed in terms of endocrine gland functions, and metabolic roles in endocrine systems are looked at. 13 pages, 44 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.

04371. THE DEBILITATING EFFECTS OF POVERTY ON THOSE IN NEED OF HEALTH CARE. Basically, a collection of statistics to show that the poor and the Black suffer relatively more than others from major diseases. 5 pages, 19 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.

04335. PLAY AND THE HOSPITALIZED CHILD. The problems of emotional and adjustment disturbances among young children who are hospitalized are examined; the importance of maternal security and play experience is emphasized, and the parental role in that process is commented on. 6 pages, 4 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.

04317. LEPROSY. A brief history of the pupular and scientific beliefs concerning the etiology and treatment of leprosy, emphasising the myths and mistaken notions which persisted down through the eighteenth century. Hansen’s work on the bacteriology of the disease is stressed, and the current theory of contagion is examined. 13 pages, 8 bibliographic references.

04310. THE FDA AND LAETRILE. A discussion of the actions of the Food and Drug Administration with regard to an alleged cancer cure. It argues that an outright ban on the drng was a violation of individual freedom. 4 pages, bibliographic reference.

04305. PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF MOTHER OF PREMATURE INFANTS WHICH HINDER ATTACHMENT. Good, clinical study of why mothers of premature babies go through shock because of emergency birth/crisis atmosphere/harried hosp. staff/leaving baby at hosp., etc., so that the process of attachment between mother and child is not formed. 6 pages, 6 bibliographic references. (notes in text.)

04274. NURSING EDUCATION. The current issues of nursing education are examined in this well-ordered study of the relationship of training to general education. The various types of degree programs are studied, and the methodology and research techniques for analyzing those programs are reviewed. Nursing level positions are examined in a regional study of American hospitals, and the relation of responsibilities to training and administrative functions is considered. 33 pages, bibliographic reference. Includes 10 pages of graphs and charts.

04258. THE POLITICS OF SWINE FLU. 11 pages, 10 bibliographic references. SEE U. S. Domestic Politics, Section 19 bibliographic references.

04237. VENERAL DISEASE IN SAN FRANCISCO. 11 pages, 6 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references. SEE Contemporary Social Problems. Section 22D.

04186. MAGIC, MYTHS AND MEDICINE. The evolution of magic and myth into the science of medicine is given an historical treatment. Egyptian, Hebrew and Mesopotamian medical practices are related, and the rise of medical science under the Greeks is attributed to the separation of religion and medicaion by Galen and Hippocrates. 5 pages, 1 bibliographic reference.

04156. TWO CASES IN STATE MEDICINE: GREAT BRITAIN AND THE SOVIET UNION. Good thorough overview of how socialized medicine works out in practice in Great Britain and Russia; though each system has its faults, there seems little liklihood of major change in the system. 11 pages, 14 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.

04064. GUIDE DOGS FOR THE BLIND. A stirring tribute to one of man’s best friend’s brightest moment is contained in this study that details the history, breeding, training, use, etc. of guide dogs. 11 pages, 5 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.

04013. SICKLE CELL ANEMIA AND THE GOVERNMENT. Very thorough study of how sickle cell anemia came to public attention, including: medical basis of the disease, its discovery, how it came to public attention, government support of S.C.A. programs, strengths and weaknesses of these programs, comparison to other herrditary diseases, 17 pages, l4 footnotes, 15 bibliographic references.

03915. MENTAL ILLNESS SOCIAL WELFARE POLICY AND SERVICES. Very sophisticated and well-argued study of socio-political attitudes towards mental illness, from the point of view of the professional social worker. Part I contains an excellent discussion of the fact that mental illness is socially defined, but this does not make it an imaginary or facist concept. Part II is an historical study of social, professional and political attitudes preventing community support for mental health work; Part III is a good common-sense discussion of the need for an organized campaign by mental health professionals for more public support & greater public mental health services. 21 pages, 21 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.

03767. HOW TO CREATE A NON-THREATENING NURSE-PATIENT RELATIONSHIP. Interesting, very optimistic essay from nursing student’s point of view, which begins from Perls’ “you do your thing, and I do mine” to create an ideal atmosphere of sensitivity, openness, communication, and achievement (in a situation where one person is in total control and the other is flat on his or her back.) 9 pages, 7 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references.

03757. THE MEDICAL MODEL OF “MENTAL HEALTH”. 9 pages, bibliographic reference. SEE Psychopathology, Section 20 E.

03743. AMBROISE PARE. A basic biography of Ambriose Pare, a French barber-become-doctor who invented stitches and otherwise contributed to the advancement of medicine in the l6th Cent. 12 pages, 7 footnotes, , 5 bibliographic references.

03715. THE LIFE AND WORK OF O. SCHMIEDBURG. Good thorough examination of this German chemist (1838-1921) who established the science of pharmacology (what drugs do to living beings). 13 pages, 27 footnotes, , 20 bibliographic references. (15 bibliographic references. in German.)

03714. PAUL EHRLICH. Well-written, technical-minded biography of the hard-working German medical researcher (1854-1915) who made numerous discoveries in blood chemistry and other fields. Includes 1 page chemical diagrams. 16 pages, 23 footnotes, , 2 bibliographic references.

03713. WILLIAM MORTON AND THE DISCOVERY OF ANAESTHESIA. Skillful and complete story of the discovery of anaesthesia using ether, including previous history of pain-killers, story of Willian Morton, introduction of anaesthesia and the complaints it wasn’t natural, Morton’s futile fight for patent right. 16 pages, 13 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references.

03616. THE SCIENTIFIC LEGACY OF PAUL EHRLICH. Very good, sometimes technical study of the life and work of Paul Ehrlich, German medical researcher of the turn of the century, who did important work in analysis of the blood, antibiotics, other medical fields. 12 pages, 20 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference.

03581. PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE. A comparison of the kinds of theoretical concepts found in philosophy and those of science. Determination of meaning, the formation of concepts, and the rules of logical thought are seen in terms of the problems of modern physics. Science and philosophy are said to meet at the borderline of metaphysics. 10 pages, 16 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.

03530. CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR NURSES. Basic overview (with some subjective comments) of the pros and cons of requiring continuing education for the legal re-licensing of nurses. 9 pages, 9 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.

03385. THE AMERICAN HEALTH EMPIRE. A review of the book by this title authored by Barbara and John Ehrenreich. A critique of the medical establishment. 6 pages, 4 footnotes, 2 bibliographic references.

03380. HIGH SCHOOL DROP-OUTS AND PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING. Very good examination of the drop-out problem from the nurse’s point of view; first part of the paper examines the causes of dropping out, concludes that the problem is largely socio-economic; finds the P.H. nurse can help in things like diet and by “educating” people to the problem. 19 pages, 24 bibliographic references.

03361. PSYCHOSUREFRY: SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL IMPLICATIONS. Well-written, well-balanced study of the psychosurgery controversy, including history of such surgery, pros and cons of believers and disbelievers in its effectiveness and morality. 11 pages, 22 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.

02415. BREAST FEEDING VS. BOTTLE FEEDING FOR INFANTS – Very good overview of the pros and cons of the two methods, including usual patterns of milk production & child’s needs, decline of breast feeding in America, fears about breast feeding, nutritional composition of mother’s milk and formula, and psychological factors for mothers; 13p.; 22 footnotes, 11 bibliographic references.


02056. THE CHILDHOOD OF HELEN KELLER. Brief overview of the life of Helen Keller, before the arrival of her teacher Anne Sullivan; also comments on the writer’s attempts to recreate the experience of handicapped persons. 6 pages, 12 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.

02048. FORMAL ORGANIZATION CHANGES IN THE HOSPITAL. How marketing strategy and managerial theory might be used to lower hospital costs; for example, combined purchasing, pooling specialized equipment and workers. 10 pages, bibliographic reference.

01876. ADAPTIVE PHYSICAL EDUCATION FOR ALLERGY AND ASTHMA VICTIMS. Good summary of exercises for kids who can’t breathe; discusses medical basis of allergies and asthma, problems of sufferers, yoga techniques and breathing exercises to increase confidence and self-control. 7 pages, 8 bibliographic references.

01836. SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES IN ALCOHOLISM. Differences here refers to the variations in alcoholism rates among sub-groups in the population; includes sex, age, social class, attitudes and environmetnal influences; a comparison to drug users is made, finding them more permissive. 16 pages, 11 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.

01819. THE ETHICAL DRUG INDUSTRY AND DRUG SUBSTITUTION. A comprehensive examination of the ethical standards of the drug industry and the practices of prescribing drugs. The thesis is advanced that the substitution of a drug for another manufacturer’s version is a viable procedure, and the industry’s arguments against substitution are untenable. The generic vs. brand controversy is seen from every angle, including the welfare system, hospital formulary practices, and the economics of substitution both for producers and consumers. The positions of the USP, the AMA and the government are examined in light of the arguments advanced in government hearings and in advertising. 57 pages, 103 footnotes, text sources.

01733. PALATE CLOSURE AND ITS FAILURE. The problem of the cleft palate and incomplete closure are examined in relation to embryonic development, cortisone treatments, and Eustacian tube dysfunctions. The various measurements of impedance audiometry are discussed in terms of cleft palate repair. 11 pages, 25 footnotes, 25 bibliographic references.

01705 bibliographic references. DISEASE IN NIGERIA. An overview of the problem of disease in an underdeveloped society; specific causes extent of minor diseases. attempts at treatment; discussion of the socio-economic factors preventing a resolution of the poverty-disease cycle. 15 pages, 23 footnotes, 21 bibliographic references.

01393. A PARADIGM FOR DOCTOR-PATIENT DECISION MAKING. Good analysis of doctor-patient relationship in terms of communications theory. Mutual responsibilities and expectations, framework of basic issues to be decided, discussion of perceptual variables on both sides. 14 pages, 10 bibliographic references. (notes in text.)

01357. RESEARCH ON FLOURINE. Traces the discovery that flouridated water is related to less tooth decay, then focuses on research done in 60s indicating malnutrition and kidney disease patients may have bad side effects from flourine. Seems to be anti-flourine, but little mention of public controversy. 5 pages, 3 bibliographic references.

01355. RADIATION EXPOSURE. Good discussion of the dangers of exposure to radiation; reports on studies done on mice, the difficulties of applying these to men or to doing experiments on men. 8 pages, 3 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.

01339. RADIATION-BASED DISEASE IN HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI. Spine-chilling, clinical and objective report on symptoms of severe radiation exposure, and the increased incidence of leukemia snd cancer documented among residents of the two bombed cities. 7 pages, 12 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.

01194. VESALIUS. A brief overview of the work and scientific importance of this pioneering doctor of the l6th cent. 4 pages, 2 bibliographic references.

01181. GOVERNMENT AND THE SAFETY OF FOODS. Not a complete survey of the field, but an interesting and original discussion of gov. responsibility for unsafe foods in practice. Concentrates on cranberry case of 1959, Bon Vivant soup, good discussion of ethical issues. 10 pages, bibliographic reference.

01162. THE ORIGINS OF MEDICAL SCIENCE. Concise overview of the history of medicine: Hippocrates, Galen, Paracelsus, Vesalius, Harvey, and on to the modern era. 5 pages, 4 bibliographic references.

00798. FOOD ADDITIVE. 9 pages, 5 bibliographic references. See Science: Environmental, Section 23C.

00697. LONELINESS. Essay by nursing student, written with empathy, on the terrors of loneliness and how nurses should be aware that hospital patients are lonely day in and day out. 9 pages, 3 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.

00696. TECHNIQUES USED IN CEREBRAL PALSY. Thorough, informally written survey of techniques and advice for teaching cerebral palsy and other crippled children, concentrates on psychological efe~cts of physical problems, role-playing as therapy technique. 17 pages, 12 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.

00689. DR. HOLMES AND CIVIL WAR EMBALMING. Interesting paper by writer claiming to be registered embalmer, giving overview of embalming techniques typical of the time and contributions of Dr. Holmes to improved embalming technology. 7 pages, 6 bibliographic references.

00663. PROBLEMS OF INVOLUNTARY COMMIITMENT. Very good discussion of involuntary commitment to mental hospitals, and the fact that once the process has started, everything converges to reinforce the presumption of insanity, whether it’s justified or not. 14 pages, 18 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.

00646. SICKLE CELL ANEMIA. Good overview of the disease, focusing on chemical and hereditary bases of the condition. 7 pages, 10 footnotes, 17 bibliographic references.

00543. BREAST FEEDING VS. BOTTLE FEEDING. Well-done examination of the differences in the two methods, finds breast feeding superior on the grounds of nutritive value, natural anti-bodies against disease, psychological benefits to mother and child. 14 pages, 13 bibliographic references. (notes in text.)

00377. CORONARY CIRCULATION. A review of the structural and functional aspects of the coronary circuit in the human body, examining matters such as blood flow, work load and cardiac output in relation to the coronary failure. The use of drugs in cardiac treatment ahd the role of basal metabolism in sustaining the cardiac muscle are also reviewed. 15 pages, 6 bibliographic references.

53920. WORK STRESS AND HEART DISEASE. Good survey of the first medical reports to link stress and heart disease; 14 pages, 43 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference.

53918. PSYCHIATRIC NURSING CONSULTATION ON A BURN UNIT. Very good overview of why psychiatric nurses are needed on burn units at hospitals, what they should do and how they should be organized for maximum effectiveness. Based firmiy on medical and psych. studies. 8 pages, 4 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.

53785. KALA-AZAR OR BLACK FEVFR. The infectious disease which is caused by the protozoal organism Leishmania dono-vani is discussed in this paper. The symptoms, means of transmission, and areas of infection are described in detail, and some methods of treatment are suggested. 7 pages, 3 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.

53757. THE RH FACTOR IN HUMAN BLOOD. The discovery and experimentation concerning, the Rh factor are examined in this study. Antibodies, transfusions and the general theory of blood groups are discussed, as well as inheritance of types and diseases resulting from blood type mixture in pregnancy. 6 pages, 11 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references.

53608. CALIFORNIA MENTAL HEALTH CARE. Critical examination of the state of California’s mental health facilities in the wake of the Short-Doyle Act’s emphasis on community treatment; focuses on political, institutional and social problems preventing the full promise of the concept from being realized. 15 pages, 31 footnotes, 23 bibliographic references.

53578. SERUM SICKNESS. The problem of antigen-antibody reaction and serum sickness is studied in relation to the overall goals of the science of immunology. Contraindictions of specific drugs, treatment programs and test mechanisms for the analysis of their efficacy are discussed in detail. An excellent review of the current state of knowledge in the entire field. 11 pages, 24 footnotes, 14 bibliographic references.

53541. EFFECTS OF MARIJUANA USE ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND SPORTS PERFORMANCE. Good summary of research on the physical effects of marijuana, noting that experienced users do not suffer as much in performance of tasks, and that its use by an athelete might not be noticeable. 8 pages, 6 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.

53485. CARBOZYPEPTIDASE A. A process of protein digestion and the importance of this pancreatic enzyme in that process are described in detail. A good brief analysis of the chemical and experimental knowledge available on the digestive processes. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.

53480. IMMUNOGLOBULIN IGA. A technical analysis of the make-up of an important component in blood serum. The sub-groups and antigenic differences among the immunoglobulins are discussed, and the role of the chemically-pure compound IGA in the secretion of tears, saliva, and gastrointestinal and urinary fluids, is discussed. 10 pages, 20 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.

53407. PSYCHIATRIC NURSING. An overview of this branch of the nursing field, concentrating on the development of typical educational programs and requirements for psychiatric nurses. 9 pages, 7 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.

53397. THE FUNCTION OF SCHOOL NURSING. Good discussion of the vital role of the school nurse in both health care and education; the development of school nursing, the need for more respect of the nurse by administrators and students. 9 pages, 12 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.

53372. REDEFINING DEATH. 11 pages, 15 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references. SEE Contemporary Social Problems

53063. LINE AND STAFF RELATIONSHIPS IN HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT. Good study of the tensions between the two kinds of responsibility in actual practice; discusses concepts of line and staff thoroughly, also focuses on interaction between various kinds of nursing supervisors. 10 pages, bibliographic reference.

52957. AN HLSTORICAL SURVEY OF DRUG ADDICTION. Good overview of opiate use and social attitudes towards it; concentrates on early history and the Far East, including how Japan was able to wipe out addiction; takes story in U.S. only to the 1920’s. 18 pages, 29 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.

52921. CRISIS INTERVENTION CENTERS AND THEIR EFFECTIVENESS IN DRUG COUNSELLING. Good basic overview of the reasons for, and work of, the drug crisis intervention center; focuses on the types of services offered and attempts at evaluating their usefulness. 10 pages, 4 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.

52906. SOME PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF DISEASE ON THE PRE-SCHOOL CHILD. Good overview of the traumas that can come from being hospitalized at an early age, including strategies for lessening anxiety and overreaction, and specific problems associated with various major diseases. 10 pages, 4 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference.

52806. CALIFORNIA CERTIFICATION FOR X-RAY TECHNICIANS. The California State Laws regarding training, examination and certification of X-ray technicians are reviewed. A brief history of the technology, and the development of protective methods in the application of radiation, are offered, and the particulars of the Radiation Technology Act of 1969 are described. 17 pages, 61 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.

52726. HEALTH PROBLEMS OF THE AGED. Good, critical study of the inadequacies of health care, could be a regular “Woodward & Bernstein” with a few more facts and some reorganization. Concentrates on increased health needs of the elderly, their psychological problems, problems they face getting care, their financial problems, lack of attention to specialized problems by medical profession, and the problem of money-grubbing nursing homes. 20 pages, 36 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.

52555. THE EFFECTS OF HEAVY METALS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY. A study of the influence of lead, mercury, copper and manganese on the human physiology, including pulmonary disorder, tremors, and the impairment of sight, touch, hearing and speech. Clinical signs and therapeutic techniques are touched on briefly. 5 pages, 4 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.

52543. SILICOSIS. The health problem created by silicosis, a form of pneumoconioisis found among mining workers and industrial victims as well, is examined in detail in the paper. Theories of the disease’s origins, diagnostic procedures and the unfavorable prognosis for most victims are all discussed from a medical viewpoint. 8 pages, 6 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references.

52497. A DIABETIC PREGNANCY. Some of the diagnostic procedures, tests, and possible complications in the case of a diabetic pregnancy are examined. Dangers to the fetus and the mother are mentioned and special diets and treatments recommended. 8 pages, 3 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.

52386. CULTURAL ASPECTS OF DEATH AND DYING. Interesting report, from nursing student’s point of view, on the typical customs and attitudes of Mexican, Indian, Jewish, Black, Irish, and Italian-Americans towards death. 10 pages, 6 bibliographic references.

52377. REFINED FOOD PRODUCTS AND NUTRITIONAL VALUES. The refining processes of milling, canning and freezing foods is seen as a destructive influence in the average American’s diet. The research of Adelle Davis, the Ralph Nader study group and other researchers into American nutrition. is commented on. 6 pages, 10 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.

52279. CEREBRAL PALSY. The nature and treatment of cerebral palsy are examined in this paper; the diverse etiological factors of the disease are listed, and the importance of physical therapy in the treatment of afflicted children. Neuromotor problems, loss of hearing and emotional damage are all discussed in terms of pediatric therapy. The role of the physical therapist is discussed as well. 17 pages, 15 footnotes, 13 bibliographic references.

52212. AN EXAMINATION OF CULTURAL STRESS AND ITS EFFECTS. Very well-done study of stress, with thorough technical description of its effects on the body, then argues that stress is inherent in many jobs and stress causes illness, to establish that American economic and educational institutions are literally killers. 12 pages, 12 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.

52086. BLOOD SUGAR AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. A discussion of the relationship between lowered blood sugar and physical activity, with a look at the homiostatic mechanisms of glucose breakdown and their influence on a typical group of test subjects. 8 pages, 8 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.

52073. NURSING ASSESSMENT AND INTERVENTION. A review of some of the problems encountered working with a typical aged patient, one Mrs. W., and how these were overcome by nursing techniques. 6 pages, 3 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.

52069. THE NURSING OBSERVATION PROCESS. A description of the intervention and assessment techniques used with a typical diabetes patient. Mrs. J., with an evaluation of the improvements effected by the nursing care. 6 pages, 3 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.

52045. PICKWICKIAN SYNDROME. A technical analysis of the causes, etiology and treatment of Pickwickian syndrome, a disease which afflicts the obese and which is characterized by breathlessness, somnolence and ultimate cardiorespiratory failure. 9 pages, 12 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.

52032. MARIJUANA. 10 pages, 1 footnote, 9 bibliographic references. SEE Contemporary Social Problems, Section 22D.

52008. MULTI-LEVEL PRESSURES OPERATING ON A MEDICAL SCHOOL. Very good study of education in the real world: how pressure groups ranging from doctor-short citizens to the AMA act and react on a medical school, with Mich. State U. med school used as example. 8 pages, 3 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references.

51984. RENAL INSUFFICIENCY AND HYPERSENSITITIVY. A good description of the pathology of hypersensitivity-caused uremia; the association of kidney disorders and hypersensitivity is discussed in terms of the job of the public health nurse. 6 pages, 11 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.

51946. CEREBRAL PALSY. An epidemiological study of cerebral palsy, with a look at the statistical figures on pregnancy-caused disease and some discussion of the etiology of such damage. 7 pages, 4 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.

51848. NATIVE ALASKANS AND FOREIGN-INTRODUCED DISEASE – Good sympathetic overview of how the white man’s diseases were the first and most devastating fruit of civilization harvested by the native Alaskans. 9p.; 10 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.

51547. METHADONE TREATMENT. 10 pages, 12 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references. SEE Contemporary Social Problems, Section 22D.

51533. HOSPITAL PURCHASING AND SUPPLIES. This study describes the role of the purchasing agent in the supplying of hospital needs, with specific data on St. Francis Memorial Hospital in San Francisco, California. Problems of auditing, centralizing purchasing, and administering support systems in the hospital are discussed, and a personal interview with a purchasing agent used as a source. 18 pages, 21 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.

16150. CHRONIC DISEASE AND HANDICAPPING CONDITIONS IN CHILDREN. A good annotated bibliography of the materials available to workers and planners of services for handicapped children. References for parents, home care, teachers and therapists are list by groups. Pediatrics, post-natal care, and mental retardation rehabilitation are all discussed. 16 pages, 46 bibliographic references.

16104. NURSING CARE OF SPASM OF THE LOWER EXTREMITIES OF QUADRAPLEGIC AND PARAPLEGIC PATIENT. Good technical overview of caring for the disabled patient, including medicines, mobility techniques and equipment, physical therapy and emphasizing the importance of a good attitude in the patient. 11 pages, 23 footnotes, 11 bibliographic references.

16100. THE NECESSITY OF EXERCISE. The need for modern Americans to take exercise, and the various forms of activity required for good physical conditioning, are given a general treatment. 6 pages, 5 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.

16097. THE EFFECT OF SMOKING ON HUMAN HEALTH. Good overview of most of the problems caused by smoking tobacco, includes ingredients of tobacco smoke, Surgeon General’s conclusions, good discussion of the fact that little can be done to get people to quit if they don’t want to. 9 pages, 16 footnotes, 13 bibliographic references.