Medicine and Biology

15803 DOLPHIN COMMUNICATION. This paper provides an overview and analysis of dolphin communication patterns and systems. The analysis explores the channels of communication used by dolphins, considers the normal environmental limitations on communication related to life in an aquatic versus terrestrial environment, discusses the cognitive and sensory basis of dolphin communication systems, and examines the evidence that dolphins have language. While the focus of the analysis is on intraspecies dolphin communication, the possibility of dolphin-human communication is necessarily also considered in that assessments of dolphin language potential often involve investigations of human-dolphin symbolic interaction. Written 2002. 11 pages, 42 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources.

15807 Human Erectile Dysfunction. This paper provides an overview of 20th century medical research into the role of ED drugs such as viagra and the growing popularity of pharma solutions to this age old problem.  Written 2012. 6 pages, 17 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.

15802 HUMAN STEM CELL RESEARCH CONTROVERSY. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the ethical problems presented by human stem cell research. Following a brief background summary on the medical/scientific components of the controversy and an equally brief overview of the current U.S. legal framework on stem cell research, the analysis focuses on the ethics of stem cell research. The ethical arguments for and against stem cell research are considered and the principal ethical dilemmas in the controversy are identified and discussed. The concluding sections present a proposed resolution to the dilemmas and a personal perspective on the problem. It will be argued that stem cell research using particular categories of human embryos and fetal material is ethically acceptable when carried out within a carefully designed ethical/legal framework and that further, there is a moral imperative to conduct such research so that society receives benefits from the related medical breakthroughs. Written 2002. 11 pages, 16 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources.

15788 THE CHEETAH: FAST, AND ENDANGERED. This paper provides a brief profile of the current status of the world’s cheetah population. Describes the great cats’ current habitat, range, and total numbers; outlines their status as a threatened species, considering the specific threats to the population; considers the arguments for and against population recovery; and outlines steps that could be taken to preserve and/or revitalize the cheetah population. Written 2002. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.

15712 BIO-TERRORISM. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the threat and reality of biological terrorism and/or biological warfare in 21st Century, post-September 11th America (2001. The first part of the paper conducts an overview of the potential sources of a biological attack, looking at both state actors and non-state actors, and examining the barriers that these potential attackers would have to overcome in order to carry off a large-scale attack using biological agents. The second part provides an overview of what experts have identified as the five “critical biological agents” that might be used as biological weapons: plague, botulism, tularemia, anthrax and smallpox. Written 2002. 13 pages, 63 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources.

15706 THE CONTROVERSY OVER DINOSAUR METABOLISM. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the controversy over dinosaur metabolism and the ongoing debate concerning whether dinosaurs were endothermic or ectothermic. Following a brief introductory overview of the implications of endothermy versus ectothermy for species physiology and survival, the analysis examines the main arguments and evidence directly related to dinosaur metabolism, the analysis also considers the implications of the recent findings on the KT event and the mass extinctions for dinosaur metabolism. Concludes that the metabolism of dinosaurs was probably heterogeneous (some were endotherms and others ectotherms). Written 2002. 12 pages, 34 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources.

15659 NUTRITIONAL NEEDS IN PATIENTS WITH PARKINSON’S DISEASE. This paper provides an overview and analysis of nutritional needs and dietary concerns of patients with Parkinson’s disease as well as an overview of potentially beneficial dietary therapies for PD patients. Concerns addressed include weight loss, L-dopa absorption problems and the need for protein intake modulation, and the association between specific dietary factors (e.g., antioxidants, B-vitamins, coffee, alcohol), and PD. Written 2001. 11 pages, 33 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.

15623 HEALTHY AGING: THE ROLE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND NUTRITION. This paper provides a brief overview and analysis of the critical role of nutrition and physical activity in the health and well-being of the elderly. The analysis examines the problem of malnutrition in the elderly and the relationship between health and nutrition in this population considers specific nutrient needs and concerns of the elderly; and presents dietary recommendations. The specific benefits of physical activity (in terms of disease prevention, health improvements, disability prevention, and improved mental status) are discussed and guidelines for elderly exercise programs presented. Written 2002. 9 pages, 28 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.

15611 PREDICTIVE GENETIC TESTING IS INHERENTLY UNETHICAL WITHIN THE EXISTING U.S. HEALTHCARE SYSTEM. This paper analyzes the ethically complex and controversial issue of predictive genetic testing. It will be argued that given the current conditions in the U.S. healthcare system, the use of predictive genetic testing is inherently unethical and should be prohibited because it may harm patients and result in injustices. It is argued that the benefits of genetic testing are grossly overstated (e.g., there are often no treatments available for genetic diseases) and that the risks, especially those related to breach of patient confidentiality, loss of insurance, and discrimination in employment, are grossly understated. It is maintained that barring the implementation of a system of universal healthcare, predictive genetic testing will remain an ethically unviable proposition. Written 2002. 12 pages, 26 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources.

15542 DEBATE OVER THE ORIGINS OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. In regard to the prehistoric decline of the Neanderthal and the rise of modern humans, this paper compares the “multi-regional” theory (modern man arose in various parts of the world) with the “Out of Africa” theory (modern man arose in a single location). Both sides of the debate are discussed, and it is noted that the issue remains unresolved because of a lack of conclusive evidence. Written 2002. 6 pages, 24 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.

15497 RACE AND SPORTS. An overview and analysis of the evidence and controversies surrounding arguments that there are racially-based differences in athletic performance which have led to the over-representation and in some cases, utter dominance, of African Americans in pro basketball, football and baseball and of persons of black African descent in international track and field. Argues that there is solid evidence to support these arguments, although also notes the importance of environmental contributions. 11p. 25f. 11b.

15486. NATURALISM IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF JOHN DEWEY. This paper discusses how Dewey’s pragmatic, empirical worldview was influenced by the theories of Darwin, and by the idea that human beings are an integral part of the constantly-changing natural world. 9 pages, 30 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.

15477. LONG TERM ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF THE EXXON VALDEZ OIL SPILL. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the long-term impact of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on the ecology of Prince William Sound and the surrounding EVOS area. This analysis focuses on those resources and concentrating on the waterfowl, fish and other marine life most affected by the spill and and their recovery or lack of recovery from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The paper begins with a brief overview of the short-term/immediate impact of the spill on the biological resources of the region and then turns to a look at the longer-term impact as it can be assessed more than ten years after the spill. Included is a consideration of the controversies surrounding measurement of the degree of recovery and the specific impact of the spill on various species. 12 pages, 56 footnotes, 24 bibliographic references.

15437. GENETICS AND CRIME. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the controversial theory that criminal behavior has genetic roots, considering the reasons why biological and and genetic in particular and theories of crime causation are so controversial, examining the central tenets of the theory, and considering the evidence supporting the theory based on family, twin, adoption, and gene-environment interaction studies. 12 pages, 41 footnotes, 23 bibliographic references.

15126. BIOETHICS AND BIOTECHNOLOGY. Explores the ethical and social problems involved in the exploitation of flora and fauna for medicine, foodstuffs and other products. Argues that biotechnology is motivated to protect rain forests and wildlife, and may help preserve indigenous peoples in passing. 6 pages, 10 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.

15031. THE HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM. A paper on how the nervous system affects human thoughts and actions, with special reference to a study regarding how it is able to “memorize” the steps in limb movement. 5 pages, 8 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.

14041. THE FLORIDA MANATEE. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the Florida manatee (West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus). The analysis begins with a description of the manatee (it’s scientific classification, physiological characteristics, behavior, etc.) and a discussion of the mammal’s life-span, mortality and reproductive cycle. Another section discusses the manatee’s population demography, distribution and habitat use patterns in Florida. The concluding section of the paper examines the Florida manatee’s status as an endangered species, examining data on manatee mortality and the causes and efforts taken to ensure manatee recovery and survival. 13 pages, 50 footnotes, 24 bibliographic references.

13972. DOES RAPE HAVE A BIOLOGICAL BASIS? This report, which provides an overview and analysis of rape and rapists, utilizes a review of recent scholarly literature to test the hypothesis that rape has a genetic/biological basis. The research focuses on the rapist and on rape behavior versus the rape victim and the consequences of rape. Included is an analysis and discussion of alternative hypotheses explaining the etiology of rape, such as psychological, personality, environmental and cultural causes as well as an overview of the varieties of rape. Concludes that rapists are a heterogeneous group and that while genetic/biological factors constitute a contributory factor in certain rape subcategories, the etiology of rape can best be conceptualized within a multi-factorial model which considers the varying contributions of biological, psychological, social, and cultural factors. 42 pages, 169 footnotes, 60 bibliographic references.

13921. VITAMINS: MYTHS AND REALITIES. A brief overview of the importance of vitamins in maintaining human health and nutrition. Discusses the role of specific vitamins (A, Bs, C, D, E, K) differentiates between fat- and water-soluble vitamins, and discusses the pros and cons of using supplements. 5 pages, 8 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.

13849. THE ETHICS OF HUMAN CLONING. Focusing on the recent developments in genetic engineering and cloning, this paper considers the ethics of cloning human beings. Following a brief background discussion of human cloning and genetic engineering, the analysis considers the arguments for and against human cloning. Concludes that human cloning is ethically unacceptable. 7 pages, 19 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.

13730 TWO FIGURES IN MODERN SCIENCE: GALILEO AND DARWIN. Compares and contrasts the life work and scientific approaches of Galileo and Darwin, to see how the two men viewed the basic problems of scientific method, construction of theory, and the application of evidence to new hypotheses. Argues that both scientists achieved revolutionary breakthroughs because they were willing to look objectively at large and complex bodies of evidence. 10 pages, 14 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.

13581 THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT. A paper on the international effort to map and sequence the entire structure of human DNA. Both the potential benefits of the project, and its ethical, legal and social implications, are discussed. 11 pages, 31 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.

13531. SEX DIFFERENCES IN NEUROANATOMY: This paper provides an overview and analysis of the contemporary scientific literature on sex differences in neuroanatomy. Following a discussion of some of the central methodological problems and issues which have made the resolution of this controversy more difficult, the analysis surveys recent research on sexual dimorphism in neuroanatomy, considering the evidence from studies on structural differences in parts of the brain; gender and cognition; hormonal influences; sexual differences in brain development and brain aging; and sexual differences in brain-based psychopathologies. 12 pages, 41 footnotes, 19 bibliographic references.

13489. COLOR VISION. . This paper covers the importance of color to human life, theories on how the eye perceives colors, the causes of color blindness, the effects of color on body and behavior, and areas where further research is needed. 12 pages, 29 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.

13480. DNA FINGERPRINTING. A detailed and highly technical examination of the processes and techniques of DNA fingerprinting. Includes a discussion of the genetic basis of DNA fingerprinting, a description of the techniques of DNA analysis, an overview of the techniques used to find and track DNA markers in DNA fingerprinting, and a discussion of statistical analysis in forensic and other applications of DNA fingerprinting.

13403. THE HISTORY OF WINE. . Traces the history of wine production and consumption from earliest times to the present day. Includes the development of wine in France, Italy, Germany, and America, and covers such topics as the 19th century blight and the impact of Prohibition. 10 pages, 45 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.

13392. VIRUSES AND CANCER. This paper provides an overview of analysis of the viral etiology of human cancer. Following a brief introduction to cancer, the analysis profiles the known and suspected links between specific viruses and cancer, considers the biological mechanisms of viral action in cancer, and discusses recent research on the links between viruses and cancer. 10 pages, 52 footnotes, 24 bibliographic references.

13363. ANIMAL PLAY. An overview and analysis of the phenomenon of “play” observed in documented across a broad spectrum of birds and mammals. Defines animal play and the controversy surrounding the construct, describes the various categories of play, considers variations in play behavior across the life span and between sexes, and examines theories of the function and/or purpose of animal play. 15 pages, 45 footnotes, 21 bibliographic references.

13226. THE NATURE-NURTURE CONTROVERSY AND HUMAN INTELLIGENCE. This report presents an overview and critical analysis of the nature-nurture controversy over human intelligence. Following an overview of the historical background to this controversy and the initial explorations of human intelligence, the basic positions and evidence supporting each side of the debate are considered. Concludes that human intelligence has a strong genetic basis, yet is nevertheless susceptible to environmental influences, particularly at an early age. 13 pages, 46 footnotes, 19 bibliographic references.

13068. KOALAS AS A POTENTIALLY ENDANGERED SPECIES. This paper provides a scientific description of the koala and then argues that the species is vulnerable because of such problems as destruction of natural habitat, stress and disease, and a slow breeding rate. Describes the work of organizations devoted to protecting the koala, and argues that the Australian government should make a nationwide effort to protect it. 13 pages, 62 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.

13060. THE ECOLOGY OF THE GRAND CANYON IN RELATION TO THE COLORADO RIVER FLOW REGIME. Discussion and analysis of the environmental forces governing the plan and animal life forms of the Grand Canyon with emphasis on the relationship to the Colorado River flow in both the pre- and post-dam era. Considers physical processes of the river flow, vegetation, aquatic animal life, terrestrial animal life, and birds. Concludes with a discussion of flood management and the future of the biota of the Canyon. 20 pages, 54 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.

13015. SPORT FISHING IN LOUISIANA. Describes the popularity of this activity in the state, as well as the many varieties of saltwater and freshwater fish that are available there. Includes a discussion of catfish, and notes recent controversies between recreational and commercial fishing interests. 10 pages, 48 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.

12586. ASPECTS OF COTTON PLANT HOST-PARASITE INTERACTIONS. Discusses and analyzes selected aspects of host-parasite interactions involving insect parasites and cotton host plants. Presents a model of the host-parasite interaction in plants, reviews cotton parasites, looks at the host-parasite interface, and reviews the role of genetic selection and biological control as a method for influencing the relationship. 8 pages, 31 footnotes, 11 bibliographic references.

12574. THE K-T BOUNDARY EVENT AND MASS EXTINCTION. Provides an overview and analysis of the K-T boundary event, focusing on recent evidence which helps to clarify the cause(s) of the K-T mass extinctions. While the bulk of the analysis focuses on the scientific evidence lending support to and/or calling into question the veracity of the Alvarez impact hypothesis, the investigation also considers and summarizes the other major theories seeking to explain the extinctions. 20 pages, 59 footnotes, 34 bibliographic references.

12534. “LITTLE LAMB, WHO MADE THEE?” Analysis of 1997 Newsweek article on the first successful cloning of a sheep, a scientific development with ethical, economic, political, and legal implications. the article is found to be informative, especially in its use of analogy to explain the topic. 5 pages, 21 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.

12534B. “THE AGE OF CLONING.” Analysis of the 1997 Time article on the economic, educational, and legal implications of new cloning technologies. The article is found to be informative and well-rounded and it concludes with an optimistic view on the future of cloning. 5 pages, 22 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.

12352. THE IMPORTANCE OF BEES TO HUMAN LIFE. Discusses the different types of bees and their way of life, as well as covering the history of the development of innovations in beekeeping. Also considers the benefits of honey and other products, and contrasts these with such threats as stings and killer bees. In addition, the paper describes the recent decline in the domestic bee population and the search for solutions to this problem. 10 pages, 45 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references.

12527. ARISTOTLE IN THE HISTORY OF BIOLOGY. Examines the role of the Greek philosopher in the development of natural philosophy, scientific method, observation and collection of species. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references.


12378. THE ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY OF BIOTECHNOLOGY. The paper argues that factors such as proximity to university facilities, existing high-tech industry and a well-educated workforce are the reasons why biotechnology firms tend to cluster in a few metropolitan areas such as Boston, San Diego and San Francisco. 5 pages, 14 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.

12352. THE IMPORTANCE OF BEES TO HUMAN LIFE. Discusses the different types of bees and their way of life, as well as covering the history of the development of innovations in beekeeping. Also considers the benefits of honey and other products, and contrasts these with such threats as stings and killer bees. In addition, the paper describes the recent decline in the domestic bee population and the search for solutions to this problem. 10 pages, 45 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references.

12285. THE PHYSIOLOGICAL BASIS OF AMNESIA. Reviews recent research (experimental and case investigations) on the physiological basis, anatomical correlates, and behaviors associated with non-psychogenic amnesia. Defines anterograde versus retrograde amnesia, discussing their relationship and their differences. Traces recent trends and significant findings in 24 recent neuropsychological research studies. 11 pages, 42 footnotes, 28 bibliographic references.

12281. CATFISH FARMING. The economic geographic of catfish aquaculture is examined. Warm climate, water supply and cheap labor are found to be the reasons the industry is concentrated in the Mississippi Delta Region. 5 pages, 8 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references. 1 map.

12271 THE PROS AND CONS OF AQUACULTURE. Provides an overview of the pros and cons of modern aquaculture methodologies so that its application may meet the expectations of those who view it as an important element in the solution to the world’s growing food scarcity problems. Traces the current state of the industry, examining both its potential and its problems, drawing on examples of its applications to specific fish species such as the Pacific salmon. A concluding analysis provides an assessment of the future directions and needs in modern aquaculture. 11 pages, 43 footnotes, 17 bibliographic references.

11977. THE EXTINCTION OF THE DINOSAURS. This investigation examines two contemporary theories which are widely held to be the most plausible explanations of the disappearance of the dinosaurs: 1) the “impact theory” which holds that a cataclysmic extraterrestrial event (collision of an asteroid or meteor with the earth) caused changes leading to the extinction of the dinosaurs; and 2) the “volcanism” theory which holds that volcanic activity (both the eruption of volcanoes and the sudden quiescence of eruptions) holds the key to mass extinctions. The concluding section offers an opinion about which theory best explains the extinction of the dinosaurs. 12 pages, 39 footnotes, 20 bibliographic references.

11975. THE EXTINCTION AND RE-INTRODUCTION OF THE RED WOLF. Emphasizes the controversy regarding whether the red wolf is a true species (and thus entitled to protection as an endangered species) or if it is merely a hybrid of the gray wolf and coyote. Argues that endangered hybrids are also worth protecting. 11 pages, 33 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.

11960. DEEP SEA HYDROTHERMAL VENTS. This paper presents an overview of hydrothermal vent systems, also know as mid-ocean vents. Following a brief history of their discovery, known locations, and presumed geological purpose, the analysis profiles the vent systems. Particular attention is devoted to the unusual nature of the biological communities in vent systems and the possible implications related to photosynthesis and the origins of life on earth. 11 pages, 35 footnotes, 15 bibliographic references.

11925. EVOLUTION AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR. 5 pages, 26 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references. See Section 20G –General Psychology.

11894. MITOCHONDRIAL DNA AS A GENETIC MARKER. Discusses the mitochondria’s role in creating protein and energy. Covers evolutionary theories based upon DNA hereditary linkages and diseases linked to mutations in the mitochondrial DNA. 5 pages, 16 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references.

11858. EVALUATION OF POSTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT INJURY. 10 pages, 24 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references. See Section 8D — Physical Education, Therapy, and Sports.

11718. ANTIBODIES TO CYTOKINES: A NEW THERAPEUTIC STRATEGY FOR THE TREATMENT OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS. See Section 16. 7 pages, 21 footnotes, 11 bibliographic references.

11584. THE AMERICAN WHITE ELM. Thorough botanical and environmental/historical summary of Ulmas americana Linneaeus, including description and habitat, native or exotic, other symbiotic species, Dutch elm disease, and cultural/historical role as a favorite American tree. 10 pages, 35 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.

11573. THE RETURN OF WOLVES TO YELLOWSTONE. See Section 23C. 12 pages, 27 footnotes, 17 bibliographic references.

11500. WHAT IS SOCIOBOLOGY? See Section 1. 7 pages, 1 bibliographic reference. Notes in Text.

11438. SHELLFISH AND DISEASE. See Section 16. 6 pages, 15 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.

11312. SPERM – EGG INTERACTION Detailed discussion of composition of sperm and fertilization process. Research literature is surveyed and implications of research for facilitating fertility or in vitro procedures are discussed. 11 pages, 30 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references.

11105. “SPLIT BRAIN” PATIENTS See Section 16. 13 pages, 22 footnotes, 14 bibliographic references.

10524. PROTEINS AND AMINO ACIDS Good general discussion of the importance of proteins and amino acids in biochemical processes. The scientific search for the nutritive element in food, for the genetic mechanisms for DNA’s replication, and for new medical and health applications of proteins and amino acids is described. 8 pages, 17 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references.

10369. EVOLUTION AND CREATIONISM. Compares Darwin’s Origin of Species and the Biblical account of creation in Genesis. The theory of evolution is described and the attacks from advocates of “creation science” are noted. 7 pages, 7 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.

10194. GENETIC CAUSES OF DEPRESSION AND SCHIZOPHRENIA. 10 pages, 26 footnotes, 11 bibliographic references. See section 20E.

09733. THE CALIFORNIA QUAIL: LOPHORTYX CALIFORNICUS. A descriptive study of Lophortyx Californicus, looking at range, habit, breeding and diet, and behavior. 7 pages, 17 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.

09480. VITICULTURE IN OREGON’S WILLAMETTE VALLEY. Analyzes location, environmental characteristics, predominant grapes and wines, history, and major producers in the area. Also considers the local industry from the perspective of national and global viticulture. 10 pages, 28 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.

09408. THE NEW EVOLUTIONARY TIMETABLE: FOSSILS, GENES, AND THE ORIGIN OF THE SPECIES BY STEVEN STANLEY. Review and analysis of this book which argues in favor of a “punctuational” view of evolution versus Darwin’s “gradualistic” view. 7 pages, 12 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference.

09389. VENUS FLYTRAP. Considers the origin, structure, and eating habits of this carnivorous plant. Includes a discussion of the myths and folklore associated with the plant. 6 pages, 11 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.

08973. IS GENETIC ENGINEERING ETHICALLY PERMISSIBLE? 7 pages, 13 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references. See Section 22D.

08472.LIGHT-EMITTING ANIMALS. Examines the varieties of light-emitting animals, from the standpoint of the function and method of luminescence, and considers the different means whereby evolution favors creatures with this adaptive mechanism. 8 pages, 7 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.

08416. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT. 10 pages, 11 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references. See SECTION 23C.

08251.CHOCOLATE. An overview of the problems Third World cocoa producing nations face. Environmental problems, internal political and economic problems, external political and economic problems are assessed. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references.

08107. THE GENETICS OF THE JEWS BY A.E. MOURANT. 6 pages, 6 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference. See Section 1.

07724. BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHIMPANZEES. An observational account of a group of chimpanzees enclosed in an aboreal setting in a city zoo. Behavioral patterns of chimp communication, aggression, play, and food-seeking are observed. 7 pages, bibliographic reference.

07514. GEOLOGIST CHARLES LYELL: UNIFORMITARIANISM AND RELIGION. Brief biography of the early career of the pioneer 19th century geologist who helped establish the principle of geological uniformitarianism, focusing on how he reconciled this with the religious attitudes of the time. Privately he spoke of freeing geology from Moses; publicly he talked of how the mysteries of geology increased our respect for the Creator’s powers. 5 pages, 10 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference.

07401. LOREN EISELLY’S THE IMMENSE JOURNEY. 6 pages, 2 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference. See section 1.

07393. COMPUTERS IN BIOLOGY. 5 pages, 5 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references. See section 23E. Math and Computer Science.

07310. SIGNIFICANT INFLUENCES OF PLANTS ON HUMANS. Brief analysis of five significant influences of plants on human affairs in the last 2500 years: traditional cereal cultures based on wheat and rice allowing traditional civilizations; spices and sugar as motives for European colonization; cotton as a stimulus to early Industrial Revolution; development of modern farming in Europe and America (corn and root crops fed to animals) allowing population growth and mass urbanization; industrial crops such as rubber and oil palm furthering industrialization. 6 pages, 10 footnotes, 2 bibliographic references.

07309. FIVE WAYS PLANTS HAVE INFLUENCED HUMAN AFFAIRS. Discusses five major ways that plants have influenced human life in the last 2500 years: wheat-based European culture, rice-based Asian culture, luxury crops such as coffee, tea and tobacco stimulating world trade and symbolizing man’s psychological dependence on plants, new plants such as maize and potatoes allowing population growth in early modern Europe, and rise of industrialized farming since McCormick’s mechanical wheat harvester in 1850s. 6 pages, 6 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.

07093. THE DEVELOPMENT OF LIFE. Complete, detailed yet flowing narrative covering the evolution of life from the prebiotic soup to the appearance of man: the various one-celled animals, the development of the body cavity in higher animals, plants, and the terrestrial vertebrates. 21 pages, 39 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references.

07092. DARWIN AND THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION. Overview of the development of evolutionary theory from 18th century to present; includes predecessors of Darwin, Darwin’s contribution, genetics from Mendel to Crick and Watson, modern understanding of how species are formed: allopatric, sympatric and parapatric models of speciation. 8 pages, 8 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references.

07086. POPULATION AND MIGRATION DYNAMICS OF THE LOCUST. Overview of the locust: actually a relative of the grasshopper that changes from a solitary form to a swarming, incredibly destructive horde. Focuses on the desert locust of the old world , also various form of new world locusts and grasshoppers. Life cycle and habits of the locust, economic damages and control methods. 8 pages, 9 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.

07056. ENDORPHINS: THE BRAIN’S NATURAL OPIATE. 9 pages, 11 footnotes, 11 bibliographic references. See section 16. Medicine and Health Care.

07055. NERVE GROWTH FACTOR. Actually, a comprehensive review of medical research on the development of the central nervous system and the brain during pregnancy, using medical vocabulary. Covers from the 8 stages of embryological development of the brain common to all vertebrates, to the mysteries and confusions arising when the brain’s 100 billion nerve cells (give or take a factor of 10) try to understand the electrochemical channels these cells are using to create this ability for understanding. 17 pages, 13 bibliographic references quoted, Another 36 bibliographic references. Supplemental reading list. Notes in text.

07022. THE EVOLUTION OF HUMAN BEINGS. 11 pages, 22 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references. See section 1. Anthropology.

06711. THE DATE PALM. 10 pages, 14 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references. See section 25D, Middle East.

06708. THE HONEY BEE. A good short study of the honey bee, looking at its social organization, sexual division of labor, and manufacture of honey and wax cells. The reproductive instincts are seen as the key to the honey bee’s success. 5 pages, 6 footnotes, 2 bibliographic references.

06707. MUSCLE CONTRACTION. An excellent study of neurological, biochemical and mechanical process involved in muscle action; the report introduces the sliding-filament theory of striated muscle contraction, with illustrations and detailed experimental data included. 8 pages, 7 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references.

06704. THE CEDARS OF LEBANON. The cultural and historical background of the cedrus libani are examined, and the chief botanical features of this Near Eastern tree are described. 8 pages, 9 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references.

06695. LEARNING AND MEMORY. 30 pages, 34 footnotes, 13 bibliographic references. See section 20G, General Psychology.

06582. VITAMIN E: ITS FUNCTIONS AND FALLACIES. 7 pages, 8 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references. See section 16, Medicine and Health Care.

06581. SOIL MICROORGANISM. The role of soil microorganism in cycling chemical elements essential for life and the soil system is reviewed; the interaction of microorganisms with the microenvironment of the soil and its nutrients is given a through chemical analysis. 10 pages, 14 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references.

06580. THE FOREST BY ROGER CARAS. A review of an environmentalist’s study of the interdependency of the forest ecology at many levels; the “web of exchange” concept is noted in particular. 5 pages, 9 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference.

06578. THE BEAVER. An interesting study of the habitat, behavior and prospects for the future of the North American beaver; the unique dams and lodges of Castor Canadensis are noted. 5p, 5 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references.

06577. OPIUM: ITS HISTORY, CULTIVATION AND USE. A well-organized short report on the history of the opium poppy and its derivative substances; covers the contemporary geographical growing regions, the distribution and marketing of the substances, and legal and illegal uses of opium, morphine, codeine, and heroin. 7 pages, 8 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.

06576. NUCLEOTIDE BASE STRUCTURES. A study of the chemistry of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA), the genetic basis of reproduction; the mutation process and their genetic consequences are reviewed in terms of the chemical coding which takes place in the base pairing of DNA molecules; a good biochemistry report. 15 pages, 18 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.

06547. MEMORY. 26 pages, 50 footnotes, 33 bibliographic references. See section 20g, General psychology.

06229. CARE OF THE TEA ROSE. Everything you want to know about this subspecies of rose, which is distinguished by its climbing-vine characteristics; history, botany, care and cultivation. 5 pages, 2 bibliographic references.

06072. SAGEBRUSH. Detailed scientific study of the biology and economic geography of sage-brush vegetation in Western U.S. Range and distribution, physiology, soil-plant relationships, competition with other plants, range management. Heavy scientific vocabulary. 12 pages, 11 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.

05722. THE WHALE SHARK. A description of the whale shark, its habitat, eating habits. Its docility and harmlessness are noted. 8 pages, 8 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.

05605. DATE PRODUCTION IN SAUDI ARABIA. A profile of the economics of date production, techniques and its contribution to the Saudi economy as a whole. 4 pages, 4 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references.

05567. CLIMATIC SOIL INFLUENCES ON THE GROWTH OF WINE GRAPES. Discusses climatic soil influence on the growing of grapes for wine, the stages of the growing season, the harvest. Also fermentation and aging of wine. 6 pages, 5 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references.

05560. THE ISSUE OF ANIMAL RIGHTS. Thorough, balanced look at the use of animals in research in the U.S., ethical, philosophical and biological issues involved, proposals for reform. Gives both sides, but strongly favors consideration of the rights of animals used in research. 10 pages, 8 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.

05276. THE HYPOTHALAMUS. Some of the vital functions of the hypothalamus gland, an organ located in the forebrain and controlling hypostatic functions such as body temperature, water balance and intake of food and water. A good short biology study. 4 pages, 6 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.

05069. THE WESTERN MEADOWLARKS. Observations of the general activities of Sturnella neglectas, such as feeding, flight, weather and group reactions, are summarized in this study of the Western Meadowlarks. 8 pages, bibliographic reference.

04957. MAN AND WOMAN, BOY AND GIRL BY JOHN MONEY AND ANNE EHRHARDT. 5 pages, bibliographic reference. See Category 16: Medicine and Health Care

04926. MODERN SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY. The synthesis of instinct and environmental biology is examined in this paper, with a notice of Nigel Calder’s book, The Human Conspiracy. Human behavior patterns are related to natural patterns in the animal world, and a personal application of those ideas made to a typical San Franciscan. 10 pages, 9 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.

04637. HEREDITARY ASPECTS OF CANCER. 10 pages, 7 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references. See Medicine and Health Care.

04536. THE “XYY” GENOTYPE AND DEVIANT BEHAVIOR. 9 pages, 7 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references. See Criminology and Law: General Law.

04469. THE PEREGRINE FALCON. The difficulties of breeding this bird in captivity are discussed with a view to the mating and courtship behavior of the birds, their threatened environmental status, and feeding and nesting habits. The Cornell University experiments at breeding are described and judged successful, but the problems of feeding and then reintroducing birds into the wild state are said to be serious. 12 pages, 6 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.

04393. THE ENDOCRINE GLANDS. 13 pages, 44 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references. See Medicine and Health Care.

04317. LEPROSY. 13 pages, 8 bibliographic references. See Medicine and Health Care.

03786. EFFECTS OF WEATHER ON MOTOR PERFORMANCE. An physiological view of the influence of such factors as ambient temperature, wind speed, humidity and body temperature on motor control mechanisms in the human body. Work efficiency is related to the parameters of optimum weather conditions, and the science of biometeorology is seen as a fruitful field for investigation. 16 pages, 33 footnotes, 24 bibliographic references.

03741. TISSUE CULTURE AND TRANSFORMATION. An examination of progress in the field of cytogenetics in recent years, with a special regard to the cultivation of animal and plant cells in vitro. Cultivation techniques, radiation, mutation, viruses and other aspects of cell transformation are considered, and the possibilities of chromosomal aberration as a tool for the study of cellular events are noted. 18 pages, 44 footnotes, 28 bibliographic references.

03550. SILENT LANGUAGES IN LOWER ANIMALS. Skillful presentation of the facts of communication in all sorts of animals through sounds, gestures or postures, colors, smell, other means. 8 pages, 2 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.

03542. THE PHYSIOLOGY OF TASTE. Technical and complete survey of the chemical and neurological basis of taste and odor perception. Description of relevant nervous system, four basic sensations of taste and the ions/molecules that cause them, smell and its relation to taste. 10 pages, 2 bibliographic references.

03333. THE ECOLOGY OF THE COAST REDWOOD. Good technical study of the characteristics affecting distribution of the coast redwood tree, analysis of its “ecological niche.” 3 pages charts and graphs. 12 pages, 11 footnotes, 11 bibliographic references.

02924. THE EFFECTS OF CROWDING. The roles of genetic frequency changes, social-structure responses and territorial factors on behavior in a variety of organisms are studied. The basic experiments with drosophilia, monkeys, salmon and insects of other kinds are compared to the problem of human crowding. Includes abstract and citings of literature. 13 pages, 17 bibliographic references.

02451. WHALES. Good overview of whales and dolphins, focusing on their communication abilities. 10 pages, 11 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.

02447. SENSORY INHIBITION IN TASTE AND TOUCH. 12 pages, 5 bibliographic references. See Psychology: General Psychology.

02434. THE HOMING INSTINCT OF ANTS. Very good summary of studies in which grown men followed ants around to see how they knew up from down and back from forth; smell, position of the sun, slope of the ground, and other clues that tell them where they’re at, are thoroughly discussed. 13 pages, 8 bibliographic references. (notes in text).

01944. THE SPECIES CONCEPT IN BIOLOGY. A philosophic evaluation of the species concept, as described in articles by Benjamin H. Burma and Ernst Mayr on the subject. Burma argues that species is a fiction, and Mayr asserts that species are valid classifications of similar organisms. The “realism- nominalism” aspects of the question are examined. 7 pages, 2 bibliographic references.

01772. THE EYESTALK: REGULATING MECHANISM IN CRUSTACEANS. Good technical summary of the biochemical regulation mechanisms connected to crustacean eyestalks, the changes in metabolism, molting, sex development, coloring that will be induced by scientists who try to remove eyestalks. 9 pages, 15 bibliographic references. (notes in text).

01355. RADIATION EXPOSURE. 8 pages, 3 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references. See Medicine and Health Care.

01221. PLANARIA: KEY TO LEARNING AND MEMORY. 13 pages, 11 bibliographic references. See Psychology: General Psychology.

00801. FACIAL EXPRESSIONS IN MONKEYS. Good summary of facial expressions used by monkeys, and what they seem to be communicating with them. 5 pages, 1 footnote, 2 bibliographic references.

00282. MITOTIC GELATION. The formulation of gel in the processes of cell mitosis are examined. Studies with micromanipulation, electron microscopy and genetic and chromosomal analysis are reviewed; the process of cell division is compared in sea urchins, spermatocytes, and other types of kinetechore mocrotubules. 11 pages, 24 footnotes, 24 bibliographic references.

00216. BORON DEFICIENCY IN PLANTS. Good biological study of the need for the element boron in plant metabolism; the effects of boron deficiency, the interaction of boron with calcium and other minerals. 5 pages, 5 bibliographic references.

00109. GENETIC PROCESSES IN BACTERIA. The cultivation of human and animal tissues in vitro that has developed over the last twenty years is reviewed. Proline synthesis, mutagenesis, and cell fusion methods are examined on a technical level. 9 pages, 7 footnotes, 2 bibliographic references.

00078. AUDITORY FUNCTIONS IN FISH AND MAMMAL. The development of the auditory functions in the evolutionary process from fish to mammals is discussed. The membrane structures and methods of transmission are compared and the various types of cochlea in fish, bird and mammal are illustrated with diagrams. 12 pages, 7 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.

00046. PULMONARY FUNCTIONS. The conveyance of air to and from the lungs, and the variety of filtering and diffusing operations performed by lung tissues are studied. Coughing mechanisms, rhythmic contractions of muscles, and nervous impulses related to the pulmonary functions are also looked at. 6 pages, bibliographic reference.

53848. NATURAL SELECTION AND GENE FLOW. The interchange of genes between racial groups is examined for genetic drift, inbreeding, dispersal of genes and genetic inhibitors. The natural selection process is seen advantageous to adaptation between races. 6 pages, bibliographic reference.

53837. EDIBLE AQUATIC PLANTS OF NORTHERN CALIFORNIA. Several species of edible plants, such as the porphyra and laminaria, are looked at in their region of California’s coastal waters, concentrating on the cool water species of the North. 6 pages, 7 bibliographic references.

53781. MARINE SYMBIOSIS IN CLEANER FISH. The symbiotic relationship of the cleaner fish to other species is examined and the literature on this type of marine creature is reviewed in detail. Fully documented and all resources cited. 9 pages, 7 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.

53578. SERUM SICKNESS. 11 pages, 24 footnotes, 14 bibliographic references. See Medicine and Health Care.

53570. INTERTIDAL ORGANISMS. The vertical distribution of intertidal organisms on the seashore is analyzed. Zones of habitation, the physical nature of the shore, tidal, wave and biological factors in distribution of plant and animal marine life are all discussed in detail. A good environmental study of adaptive and zonation processes, with a thorough referencing of the sources. 21 pages, 54 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.

53536. FORAMINIFERA AS PALEOCLIMATIC INDICATORS. Methods of measuring climatic changes in the past by examining sediment deposits of one-cell protozoa, called foraminifera, are looked at. The relationship between water, temperature, texture and rate of accumulation and the radiocarbon dating of materials is seen as a clue to paleoclimatic temperatures, glacial periods and other data. 10 pages, 7 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references.

52801. . SLUGS. A descriptive biological essay on the varieties of slugs and their characteristics, with particular emphasis placed on the San Francisco Bay Area species. An interesting study of the habits of a complex nocturnal creature, thoroughly researched and documented. 13 pages, 61 footnotes, 11 bibliographic references.

52678. THE JUMPING BEHAVIOR OF ALBINO AND PIGMENTED RATS. Report of an elementary experiment with rats; the idea was that pigmented rats (which are more excitable and active) would be harder to train than less active albinos. However, differences in their initial abilities and responses to coaching were not significant. 6 pages, 5 bibliographic references.

52305. WORK DONE IN THE LESIONING OF THE VISUAL CORTEX. Some of the experiments by Lashley and others in lesioning the visual cortex in order to determine brain functions are analyzed. The connection between the visual cortex and the visual functions is looked at, and work on rats and cats in the field is related in detail. 11 pages, 6 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.

52086. BLOOD SUGAR AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. A discussion of the relationship between lowered blood sugar and physical activity, with a look at the homoiostatic mechanisms of glucose breakdown and their influence on a typical group of test subjects. 8 pages, 8 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.

52037. THREE WOOD INSECTS. The habitation, breeding and destructive tree boring of three California insect pests are considered. The Fir Engraver, the Mountain Pine Beetle, and the California Five-Spined Engraver are described and feeding attacks interpreted. 6 pages, 6 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.

52036. THE SOUTHERN SEA OTTER. The range and habitat of the sea otter of the Pacific Coast is described, and the breeding habits, threats of extinction and future prospects of the animal are assessed. 7 pages, 13 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.

51919. THE BRACHIOPODS. A thorough examination of the Brachiopod Dhylum. Including a complete classification of the classes of the species, a description of the various forms they take. and a discussion of the functions of the muscles, valves and membranes of the group. Includes a history of the classification of the Brachiopods. 13 pages, 21 footnotes,6 bibliographic references.

51897. CHORDATE PHYLOGENY. A well-written technical discussion of the evolution of the adrenal gland in the chordates, with a look at the function of the adrenal gland in humans. Location and cell structures of the adrenal gland in amphibians, reptiles and birds are examined closely. 7 pages, 5 bibliographic references.

51762. PROTEIN EVOLUTION. The development of the nitrogen-containing organic compounds in evolutionary and taxonomic terms is considered. The relationship of speciation to protein structures and mutations of genetic material is also looked at, and the mechanisms of genetic structural change are commented on. 6 pages, 12d., 6 bibliographic references.

51749. PROTEIN REQUIREMENTS FOR PIGS. The problems of feeding pigs at all stages of development is considered; the pre-weaning, growing and finishing pig is looked at for the best-lean-fat ratio, growth and weight gains in terms of protein requirements in their diets. 6 pages, 10 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.

51648. NEURAL CONTROL OF BODY MOVEMENT. A discussion of how the nervous system controls muscular movement. Terms considered include pathways, input, output, gamma efferent systems, pyramidal tracts, and other aspects of the science of neurology. 10 pages, 14 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.

51545. SENSORY CODING IN MAMMALIAN AUDITORY SYSTEMS. Thorough, detailed, and technical study of how messages are passed from the ear to the brain, based on neurophysiological research. 15 pages, 26 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.


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